Relative afferent pupillary defect
was diagnosed in 15% of cases.
Main outcome measures were visual acuity, globe rupture, endophthalmitis, perforating injury, retinal detachment and afferent pupillary defect
. The ocular trauma score was calculated by assigning a raw point value for initial visual acuity ranging between 60 and 100.
The afferent pupillary defect
in the first evaluation was present in 16 (7.1%) of the affected eyes, and was absent in 104 (46%).
There was total afferent pupillary defect
in the left eye.
Pupillography of relative afferent pupillary defect
contralateral to monocular mature cataract.
Surgery is necessary if there is no clinical improvement within 48 hours; the condition worsens, especially if there is decreased vision and relative afferent pupillary defect
; or there is a frank orbital, nor subperiosteal, abscess.
(24) Other pupillary signs can include a relative afferent pupillary defect
(RAPD), which can be caused by optic nerve tumours.
Subconjunctival hemorrhage of the nasal conjunctiva in the left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect
(RAPD) were observed.
Pupils were equally round with an afferent pupillary defect
The patient inclusion criteria were as follows: (i) acute, chronic, or occult vision loss; (ii) ophthalmic examinations showed color vision and/or visual field defect, if unilateral optic neuropathy with relative afferent pupillary defect
(RAPD); (iii) head/orbital MRI for excluding compressive disorder; (iv) blood tests negative for hepatitis B, syphilis, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases; and (v) a clear association between optic neuropathy and gene mutations.
Double vision was present in 7 (25%), bruit was present in 9 (32.14%), secondary glaucoma in 4 (7.1%), papilloedema in 2 (7.1%), primary optic atrophy in 7 (25%) with Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect
(RAPD) and visual acuity ranging from 3/60 to no perception of light [Table 1].
Her visual acuity in both eyes was 20/25, and her pupils were symmetric and reactive to light; there was no relative afferent pupillary defect
. Pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy was seen in the right eye, but the trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV) and the abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) were both intact (figure 1).