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ALLOY, or ALLAY. An inferior metal, used with gold. and silver in making coin or public money. Originally, it was one of the allowances known by the name of remedy for errors, in the weight and purity of coins. The practice of making such allowances continued in all European mints after the reasons, upon which they were originally founded, had, in a great measure, ceased. In the imperfection of the art of coining, the mixture of the metals used, and the striking of the coins, could not be effected with, perfect accuracy. There would be some variety in the mixture of metals made at different times, although intended to be in the same proportions, and in different pieces of coin, although struck by the same process and from the same die. But the art of coining metals has now so nearly attained perfection, that such allowances have become, if not altogether, in a great measure at least, unnecessary. The laws of the United States make no allowance for deficiencies of weight. See Report of the Secretary of State of the United States, to the Senate of the U. S., Feb. 22, 1821, pp. 63, 64.
     2. The act of Congress of 2d of April, 1792, sect. 12, directs that the standard for all gold coins of the United States, shall be eleven parts fine to one part of alloy; and sect. 13, that the standard for all silver coins of the United States, shall be one thousand four hundred and eighty-five parts fine, to one hundred and seventy-nine parts alloy. 1 Story's L. U. S. 20. By the act of Congress, 18th Feb. 1831, Sec. 8, it is provided, that the standard for both gold and silver coin of the United States, shall be such, that of one thousand parts by weight, nine hundred shall be of pure metal, and one hundred of alloy; and the alloy of the silver coins shall be of copper, and the alloy of gold coins shall be of copper and silver, provided, that the silver do not exceed one-half of the whole alloy. See also, Smith's Wealth of Nations, vol. i., pp. 49, 50.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, not all the alloying elements in Mg alloys form second-phase particles.
Continuous decrease in surface roughness of microalloyed PM steels was observed with an increase in alloying elements. This is due to their different hardness values obtained after sintering.
* addition of alloying elements to Zn decreased melting temperatures,
The distribution of the alloying elements both along the length and in the cross-section of the ingots is uniform, and the content of the impurity elements is in the allowed range according to GOST 19807-91 (Table 1).
The release of Ti and other alloying elements in to the surrounding tissue has been reported due to either passive corrosion or accelerating process such as wear.
The results of laboratory and industrial corrosion tests of various boiler steels and pearlitic steel 12X1M[PHI] with coating containing 73% Ni and 16% Cr have shown that the resistance of superheater tubes to chlorine corrosion depends on the content of alloying elements as well as on the particular element content ratio.
Though not well understood, these stresses can result from the nucleation and growth process (e.g., lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth) or, in the case of the widely used technique of electrodeposition, from the use of solution additives and alloying elements needed to achieve desired deposition rates and mechanical properties.
"Clear evidence of full absorption has therefore been established." The amendment does not, however, affect purchases from unrelated parties, who are still subject to a minimum import price of Euro 2,622 per tonne.The original measures define the imports as unwrought magnesium containing more than 3% by weight of intentionally added alloying elements such as aluminium and zinc.
Topics include characteristics and properties as well as general applications for each iron type, common alloying elements and their uses, iron melting technology and considerations, and compatible casting processes.