Mean LR test RMSEA Statistic for N = 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1,000 for k = 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Items under the Null Hypothesis Condition (left panel) &

Alternative Hypothesis Condition (right panel) with 8 DIF Items.

In Table32wecan observe that z-values for the hypothesis test of the IT2PE and IT2MPE-DMPF are -10078102681 and -2621392303.80, respectively, which are lower than the z-critical value that is equal to -1.645 with a significance level a of 0.05, whose z-value confirms the acceptance of the

alternative hypothesis posed in (15), demonstrating that the IT2FPCM algorithm is better than the IT2FCM algorithm for the z-test of the defuzzification according to IT2PE and IT2MPE-DMFP indices of validation indices for the clusters found by the algorithms in the image shown in Figure 2(b).

H1:

Alternative Hypothesis; there is a significant difference in the expenditure-GDP ratio over the three periods.

Up to now, the bias-corrected state estimation under the

alternative hypothesis [H.sub.[alpha]] can be recursively realized.

Statistical hypothesis: the null hypothesis is that the central tendency of EB scores of university and high-school senior year students is the same [[H.sub.0]: E(B) = E(U)]; the

alternative hypothesis is that the central tendency of the scores is different [[H.sub.1]: E(B) [not equal to] E(U)].

Alternative hypothesis: The repeat of media advertising (TV) affects the attraction of clients on Bank Mellat.

Under the

alternative hypothesis of systemic risk, we expect [[??].sub.2]([DELTA]CoVaR) - [[??].sub.1]([DELTA]CoVaR) is to be negative, and since [[??].sub.M] is positive, systemic risk may be present when the test statistic produces a large positive value.

The

alternative hypothesis is that the firms are not equal competitors:

The

alternative hypothesis for these 3 tests is as follows:

An

alternative hypothesis evaluated here is that "trees" in nearshore assemblages on the Hueneme Shelf produce a more realistic assessment of conditions and recovery times than "weeds".

At the same time, an

alternative hypothesis ([H.sub.1]) is also assumed that states the administration of the physiotherapy treatment is beneficial and, therefore, patients undergoing the physiotherapy treatment have an outcome better than that of the untreated patients, that is [micro]physio > [micro]untreated.

Thus, a null hypothesis should be rejected so that an

alternative hypothesis can be accepted.