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There is much debate, however, about whether altruistic behavior increases and/or decreases agency costs in family firms.
Specifically, a general consensus indicates that with age, and the development of cognitive ability to take others' perspectives, comes a concomitant increase in altruistic behaviors (Eisenberg, Miller, Shell, McNalley, & Shea, 1991).
In order to engage students in altruistic behavior, previous research proposed that institutional and environmental factors that promote public service must be in place (Anderson & Moore, 1978).
(21) Research on altruistic behavior also makes clear that the costs and rewards of service play a critical role.
It may be that participation in school-sponsored extracurricular activities also shapes pro-social and altruistic behaviors that are frequently attributed to religious participation.
It is recognized that some altruistic behavior is at times idealistic and romanticized, and even patronizing (Noddings, 1992; Ward & Wolf-Wendel, 2000).
A 1998 study of the effects of altruistic behavior on adults found that their self-esteem and sense of well-being increased by as much as 24% when they helped others.
Differences in altruistic behavior are found on the bases of education, sex and age.
"Heroism is altruistic behavior performed from a strong sense of love, duty and commitment, and often entails placing oneself in life-threatening situations." Who better exemplifies a classic hero than one who actively risks loss of limb or life in pursuit of a worthy cause on the battlefield?
Judges' apparently altruistic behavior may be driven by guilt, ego, mindless adherence to role, or the fear that a goddess in a toga will strike the erring judge with lightning.
In addition, a lower level of altruistic behavior at Time 1 was longitudinally related to a higher level of father-adolescent conflict at Time 2.