Global modulation mediated by GABAergic amacrine cells
. Retinal GCs have spatially-tuned (center/ surround antagonistic) RFs.
In particular, Isl1 controls the differentiation of cholinergic amacrine cells
and also may function in the specification of bipolar cell subtype or the differentiation of previously specified bipolar subtypes in the murine retina [22, 23].
In rat retina, A17 amacrine cells
are known to make reciprocal synapses onto rod bipolar cells [11,43].
There are three types of layers in our model: transduction (cones), regularization (horizontal and amacrine cells
), and finally differentiation (bipolar and ganglion cells).
Dual expression of GABA or serotonin and dopamine in Xenopus amacrine cells
is transient and may be regulated by laminar cues.
Name Structure Host Product number Dilution labeled or and source targeted BrdU S-phase marker Rat Ab6326; Abeam 1:40 Inc., Cambridge, MA ChAT Amacrine cells
Rabbit Ab143; Chemicon, 1:100 Temecula, CA Chx10 BCs Sheep x1180P; Exalpha 1:50 Biologicals Inc., Shirley, MA Cyclin D3 MGC nucleus Mouse MCA1866; 1:40 Serotec, Raleigh, NC DAPI Nucleus H-1200; Vector 1.5 Laboratories, [mu]g/mL Burlingame, CA DRAQ5 Nucleus BOS-889-001; 20 [micro]M Alexis Biochemicals; Enzo Life Sciences International Inc., Plymouth Meeting, PA Glutamine MGCs Rabbit G2781; Sigma 1:5,000 synthetase Aldrich, St.
"This was puzzling, because in chicks amacrine cells
are the primary retinal cells that are regenerated after injury," Reh said.
Dopamine is produced by a subset of amacrine cells
in the retina and generally functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Instead of the the eye's bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells
, which process the information gathered by the rods and cones, the electronic retina has "signal transfer gates, memories, logic gates and driver circuits,' each on its own silicon layer.
Since in the highest density areas of avian retinas (Bravo & Pettigrew), the RGCs become smaller and distributed into multiple sublayers, in this study the authors employed retinal radial sections to also identify the deeper RGCs and to distinguish the RGCs from the displaced amacrine cells
which could lead to an overestimation of their number.
Hitchcock, "Tracer coupling among regenerated amacrine cells
in the retina of the goldfish," Visual Neuroscience, vol.
Serial 10 [micro]m cryosections were evaluated for the expression of PKC[alpha] (rod bipolar cells), iGluR4 (OFF bipolar cells), mGluR6 (ON bipolar cells), GFAP (activated Muller cells), calretinin (all amacrine cells
), calbindin (horizontal cells), and Bassoon (synaptic ribbon).