Since the EURL ECVAM database only includes substances that are positive in the Ames test
, the ECHA database (1) was used as a second information source.
Caption: FIGURE 12: Results from the decision tree for estimating in vitro mutagenicity (Ames test
): bisoprolol API (a) and bisoprolol Imp.
The scholars that highlight Ames test
limitations point to the fact that it is utilizing bacteria that is very different from human cell and therefore advocate for models using human or mammalian cells.
In Ames test
the mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium was used.
For the P pentosaceus strain, there were few researches who had evaluated its safety with the Ames test
and a 28-day feeding test.
typhimurium Ames test
. These results suggest that the LME and SME of Anemopsis californica may be safe for use in humans and should be considered for further medical development studies.
a) The concentrated water extracts after the chlorination process were mutagenic to bacteria and genotoxic for mammal cells (human lymphocytes), evaluated through the Ames test
and comet assay, respectively.
The mutagenic activity was determined by applying the Salmonella/microsome test, known as the Ames test
, using TA98 and TA100 strains of S.
Because of this, in the present study we used two test systems: the prophage [lambda] induction (SOS-Inductest) and the bacterial reversion assay (Ames test
This was accomplished by searching each database for "Ames test
OR Salmonella mutagen." This gave 11,064 responses in PubMed, 13,694 in Scopus, and 3,453 in the Web of Knowledge.
The first ISO option is to perform the Ames test
, mouse lymphoma and a third chromo some aberration test that eliminates the need for colony sizing.
Where the negative Ames test
result has proved to be a false indication of safety, the compound must be discarded.