It was not until more than 100,000 years later that anatomically modern humans
appear in the fossil record.
Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans
and behavioral modernity (the 'human revolution'), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominids who created it.
The paper's title referred to evidence for pelagic fishing and the maritime skills of anatomically modern humans
The new divergent lineage, which was found in an individual who submitted his DNA to Family Tree DNA, a company specializing in DNA analysis to trace family roots, branched from the Y chromosome tree before the first appearance of anatomically modern humans
in the fossil record.
Among the topics are whether the Early Aurignacian in Central Europe represents the initial dispersion of anatomically modern humans
in Europe, archaeological and palaeoecological studies of palaeolithic industries before the Last Glacial Maximum between 32,000 and 20,000 ago, whether fishing was an important subsistence activity in the Upper Palaeolithic of Southwest Germany, imprints discovered on palaeolithic ceramics at sites in Lower Austria, and different excavation techniques and their stratigraphic results.
Anatomically modern humans
, Homo sapiens, first appeared in Africa between about 250,000 and 130,000 years ago, according to genetic evidence.
This surviving population of Homo erectus in Indonesia would have been alive at the same time as anatomically modern humans
- Homo sapiens - and also Neanderthals, whose exact place in human evolution is the subject of endless debate.
In 2005, Professor Richards led research published in an article in the journal Science that used mitochondrial DNA evidence to show that anatomically modern humans
dispersed from their Africa homeland via a "southern coastal route" from the Horn and through Arabia, about 60,000 years ago - after the Toba eruption.
Recent genetic studies suggest that Neanderthals may have bred with anatomically modern humans
tens of thousands of years ago in the Middle East, contributing to the modern human gene pool.
An oval dwelling was carefully built, showing once again that such social behaviour (shelter, transfer of skills) predates by far the arrival of anatomically modern humans
Furthermore, it is doubtful that these south Siberian Neandertals evolved into anatomically modern humans
, as some Russian workers believe.
Our analysis indicates this lineage diverged from previously known Y chromosomes about 300,000 ago, a time when anatomically modern humans
had not yet evolved," said Michael Hammer, an associate professor in the University of Arizona's department of ecology and evolutionary biology and a research scientist at the UA's Arizona Research Labs.