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Group A Group B PRA = 0 PRA > 0 no DSA N (89) = 59.3% N (39) = 26% Acute rejection 12/89 (13.5%) 10/39 (25.6%) (i) ABMR 0 (0%) 4 (40%) (ii) TCMR 12 (100%) 6 (60%) Graft Loss 1/12 (8.3%) 1/10 (10%) Death 0/12 (0%) 0/10 (0%) Group C PRA > 0 with DSA P N (22) = 14.7% Acute rejection 8/22 (36.4%) <0.001 (i) ABMR 8 (100%) <0.001 (ii) TCMR 0 (0%) <0.001 Graft Loss 1/8 (12.5%) 0.999 Death 1/8 (12.5%) -- PRA: panel reactive antibody; DSA: donor specific antibody; ABMR: antibody-mediated rejection; TCMR: T-cell mediated rejection.
Glotz, "New insights in antibody-mediated rejection," Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol.
Reinsmoen et al., "Differences in pathologic features and graft outcomes in antibody-mediated rejection of renal allografts due to persistent/recurrent versus de novo donor-specific antibodies," Kidney International, vol.
Adams et al., "De novo thrombotic microangiopathy in renal allograft biopsies--role of antibody-mediated rejection," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Murphy et al., "The management of antibody-mediated rejection in the first presensitized recipient of a full-face allotransplant," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Among the 106 biopsies that have been done before BNR, 24 (23%) demonstrated low grade acute cellular rejection (1R, 1A, or 1B) and 1 (0.9%) showed suspicious antibody-mediated rejection (AMR 1).
Based upon these results, it was concluded that the development of proteinuria is not initiated by T-cells or as a result of antibody-mediated rejection. Additionally, histologic examination revealed findings that were remarkably similar to the nephrotic condition known as minimal change disease (MCD) that is common in pediatric populations [14, 15].
Antibody-mediated rejection in lung transplantation: clinical outcomes and donor-specific antibody characteristics.
Komatsuzaki et al., "Subclinical antibody-mediated rejection due to anti-human-leukocyteantigen-DR53 antibody accompanied by plasma cell-rich acute rejection in a patient with cadaveric kidney transplantation," Nephrology, vol.
Several monoclonal antibodies (MABs) are being studied to help solve the problem of antibody-mediated rejection. Although OKT3 has been withdrawn from the market, some research has been done to humanize the murine component to prevent the adverse effects from the mouse protein (Vella & Brennan, 2014).
Setoguchi et al., "Acute antibody-mediated rejection in living ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: long-term impact and risk factors," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is defined as allograft rejection caused by antibodies of the recipient directed against donor-specific HLA molecules and blood group antigens [104, 105].

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