Although the ligands which bind to DEC205 are not clear, following ligand binding, DEC205 is rapidly internalized by means of coated pits and vesicles and is delivered to multivesicular endosomal compartments that resemble the MHC class II-containing vesicles implicated in antigen presentation
. Due to the endocytic properties of DEC205, it is a promising receptor for antigen delivery for vaccines and targeted immunotherapies .
As antigen-presenting cells, in addition to cross-presentation, DC can also present antigen to T cells by classical MHC I-restricted endogenous antigen presentation
and MHC II-restricted exogenous antigen presentation
Several mechanisms have been described for bacterial evasion of immune response, such as prevention of opsonization, toxin secretion, disruption of mucosal barriers, modification of pattern molecules, uptake induction and phagosome escape, persistency within endosomes, interference with cytokine secretion, interference with antigen presentation
, and inhibition of T- and B-cell functions, among others .
Up-regulation of genes associated with the antigen presentation
and dendritic cell maturation pathways was the most distinctive effect of TCDD exposure.
According to the model, prolonged viral infection limits the production of T cells and inhibits antigen presentation
to immune cells.
To better understand promiscuity in antigen presentation
we compared the susceptibility to Yersiniapestis of three different strains of mice: HLA-DQ8ab transgenic (tg) Ab0 mice, B10.T(6R), and out bred Swiss Webster mice expressing endogenous mouse MHC class II molecules.
The discovery of this technology is based in the understanding and use of a basic biological mechanism regulating antigen presentation
to the immune system."
Antisqualene antibodies do not go through the normal major histocompatibility complex pathway for antigen presentation
. Lipidlike molecules such as squalene are presented by the CD1 pathway about which little is known.
Integrins regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, antigen presentation
, lymphocyte recirculation, leukocyte homing in the skin and gut, cellular cytotoxicity, bone resorption, and blood clotting.
Mediastinal lymph nodes, the draining lymph nodes of the lungs, are considered the site where antigen presentation
to T cells initially occurs before clonal expansion.
Sitravatinib's potent inhibition of TAM and split family RTKs may overcome resistance to checkpoint inhibitor therapy through targeted reversal of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, enhancing antigen-specific T cell response and expanding dendritic cell-dependent antigen presentation
Inefficient antigen presentation
to helper and cytotoxic T cells is responsible for inhibition of the anticancer immune response by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) .