Nevertheless, evidence has been found that different RIFINs are being expressed on different parasite lines indicating that rif genes might have an additional role in antigenic variation
and in immune evasion as well (26).
Further studies, such as sequencing coupled with bioinformatics, experimental analyses and the use of specific compounds with known actions, should uncover the mechanisms of antigenic variation
of influenza viruses, the emergence of pandemic strains, receptor binding and fusion, leading to the development of novel vaccines and medicines for the prevention, control and therapy of influenza.
multocida isolates were confirmed by PCR whereas antigenic variations
among isolates were determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE).
To explore whether these antigenic variations
can be translated into protection efficacy difference in vivo, we selected A/chicken/northern China/k0602/2010 (k0602) and A/chicken/Shandong/k0603/2010 (k0603) viruses to evaluate the bivalent inactivated reassortant H5N1/PR8 vaccine Re-4/Re-5 (the HA and NA genes of Re-4 are from a clade 7 virus A/chicken/Shanxi/2/2006).
of recent influenza A(H1N1) viruses.
and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Immunol Cell Biol.
Similar stable phylogenetic relationships were observed in TBE virus strains of other subtypes, which indicates that the virus is remarkably stable and not subject to major antigenic variation
The fever peaks are associated with high spirochetemias, and antigenic variation
leads to new antigenic variants of a major surface protein and the recurrence of high numbers of borreliae in the blood (7-10).
among newly isolated strains of parainfluenza type 4 virus.
Demonstration of antigenic variation
among rabies virus isolates by using monoclonal antibodies to nucleocapsid proteins.
Several mechanisms facilitate this persistence, including antigenic variation
, binding of factor H, and rosetting of erythrocytes (25-27).
Extreme Intrasubtypic Antigenic Variation
and the Pseudopandemic of 1947 (H1N1)