We focused on azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin because these agents are currently recommended for gonorrhea treatment (azithromycin and ceftriaxone), are in the same antimicrobial class as a recommended antimicrobial drug
(cefixime), or are widely used for outpatient treatment of non-STD infections or are of renewed interest because of potential novel diagnostics for detection of resistance determinants (ciprofloxacin) (16,17).
The author not only provides the US perspective but also describes the history of antimicrobial drug
use in Europe, the steps these countries have taken to curb the tide of drug resistance, and where progress has been made.
age, sex, race, ethnicity); symptom duration; urinary tract abnormalities; UTI within the previous year; concurrent and immunocompromising conditions; antimicrobial drug
use within the previous 2 and 60 days; a fluoroquinolone- or ceftriaxone-resistant UTI within the previous 90 days and 1 year; long-term care residence; hospitalization; travel outside North America within the previous 90 days; illness severity; disposition; and treatments provided.
For many of the diseases, isolate characterization, including typing and antimicrobial drug
susceptibility testing, is done at a central laboratory.
Further research needed in this neglected area includes prospective studies to determine the effect of MDR isolates on patient outcomes and randomized clinical trials of antimicrobial drug
strategies to inform treatment protocols.
Firenze, Italy) was used for isolate identification and antimicrobial drug
susceptibility testing; PCR and sequencing, as previously described, was used to identify bla^C genes (3).
This week's launch is an exciting milestone for MedMined because hospitals using the new Antimicrobial Management Service will see a reduction in antimicrobial expenses, improved utilization of antimicrobial drugs
, decreased costs due to shorter hospital stays, and fewer adverse drug events," said Patrick Hymel, M.
This finding indicates that the risk for exposure to carbapenemases extends beyond persons with particular travel histories, previous antimicrobial drug
use, or hospitalization and into the general public.
The outcome variable was presence or absence of a claim for an antimicrobial drug
prescription linked to the index visit.
Mapping antimicrobial drug
resistance in under-resourced countries is urgently needed so that measures can be set up to curb it.
Because the patient was improving, IV ceftriaxone was maintained for 18 days, and he was discharged 5 days after the beginning of efficient antimicrobial drug
To the Editor: Globally, antimicrobial drug
resistance is rapidly rising, with resultant increased illness and death.