Appointment, Power of
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Appointment, Power of
A power that is conferred upon a donee to dispose of the donor's property by nominating and selecting one or more third-parties to receive it. The property may consist of tangible items like cars, boats, and household items, or it may consist of an intangible interest in property, such as the right to receive dividend income from stocks.
A power of appointment may be transferred only in writing, such as by deed, trust, or will. Donees who receive an oral promise to be given a power of appointment, however, may bring an action for Promissory Estoppel if they have relied to their detriment on that promise. In no case will a court find that a power of appointment had been created unless the donor's intent to create the power is demonstrated; the person who would hold the power is indicated; the circumstances under which the power could be exercised are identified; and the property that is subject to the power is specified.
No particular semantic formula is necessary for the creation of a power of appointment. Any written expression, however informal, will suffice so long as it clearly indicates an intention to create such a power. Thus, a power of appointment may be created by implication. For example, a devise or bequest of property to a person as he or she may designate to receive it or subsequently transfer it gives that person a power of appointment. A testamentary gift to a donee for life, to be at his or her disposal, or with a right to dispose of it at the donor's death, confers a power of appointment. For example, if a donor gives the donee an automobile to use as the donee sees fit during the donee's lifetime, the donor has given the donee a power of appointment over the automobile. Similarly, if a donor gives the donee authority to dispose of the automobile upon the donor's death, the donor has given the donee a power of appointment over the automobile.
There are three classes of powers of appointment. General powers of appointment give donees the power to dispose of the property in any way they see fit. Limited powers of appointment, also known as special powers of appointment, give donees the power to transfer the property to a specified class of persons identified in the instrument creating the power. Testamentary powers of appointment are powers of appointment that typically are created by wills.