is the impulse to make a controversial case, or to attack the other person's reasoning and evidence, while verbal aggressiveness is the tendency to engage in ad hominem attacks, addressing the other person's character, habits, or background.
Two factors that have been found to influence perceptions of communicators are argumentativeness
and verbal aggression.
This points once again to the idea that increasing an individual's level of argumentativeness
, as Infante, Chandler, and Rudd (1989) suggest, and the argumentative skills deficiency model might actually be counter-productive.
Their exclusivity meant they were sealed against outsiders and intolerant of diversity; their "ascriptive" basis in a "given" identity (blood, race, religion) inured them to voluntary identities and held in check [the freedom to choose] social relations or join contrived social groupings at will; the hierarchical structure and dependency on charismatic leadership of traditional communities rendered them inegalitarian and resistant to social mobility; and their personalistic, noncontractual mode of relations rendered them prone to prejudice, gossip, argumentativeness
, and corruption.
In fact, the idea of argumentativeness
and contrariness being "Jewish" characteristics is more familiar from American than Hungarian popular culture.
A second line of research that in retrospect dealt with argument stakes was some early work relating argumentativeness
to beliefs about arguing (Rancer, Baukus, & Infante, 1985; Rancer, Kosberg, & Baukus, 1992).
Jaffa's erudition was as legendary as his argumentativeness
. In my first regular academic job, as a visiting assistant professor of government at Claremont McKenna College, I occupied the Harry V.
The literature reveals not only unusual analytical and comparative thoroughness but also unusual competitive relentlessness and interpersonal rhetorical argumentativeness
. (11) The third extraordinary feature--with which this Symposium is concerned--is the striking impact this scholarship had on judicial practice in the United States and the equally striking absence of almost any impact on scholarship or judicial practice outside the United States.
Signs of ineffective coping in aviators include denial, defensiveness, over-sensitivity to criticism, argumentativeness
, arrogance and chronic interpersonal problems.
Depending on the chosen form of determining experts' preferences, the main requirements of the experts are as follows: 1) competence (reliability and validity of decisions, awareness and reproducible assessment and argumentativeness
replies); 2) impartiality; 3) creativity; 4) conformism; 5) team spirit (dependent on quaternary type); 6) relation to the examination; 7) degree of participation in the solving problem; and 8) communication skills (dependent on quaternary type) (Fig.
Concessivity relations are presented, especially in formal speech, as an important rhetorical strategy aimed at argumentativeness
, since in more informal speeches, adversative relations appear with greater strength (cf.
schoolboys with unsettling nonsense and give them an argumentativeness