Aristotle

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Aristotle

Aristotle. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Aristotle.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Aristotle was born in 384 b.c., in Stagira, Greece. He achieved prominence as an eminent philosopher who greatly influenced the basic principles of philosophy and whose ideologies are still practiced today.

Aristotle was a student of the renowned philosopher Plato and tutored Alexander the Great, who became King of Macedonia in 336 b.c.

Aristotle established his own school in the Lyceum, near Athens, in 335 b.c. He often lectured his students in the portico, or walking place, of the Lyceum. The school was subsequently called Peripatetic, after the Greek word peripatos for "walking place."

In 323 b.c. the reign of Alexander ended with his death, and Aristotle sought refuge at Chalcis.

Aristotle formulated numerous beliefs about the reasoning power of humans and the essence of being. He stressed the importance of nature and instructed his pupils to closely study natural phenomena. When teaching science, he believed that all ideas must be supported by explanations based upon facts.

Concerning the realm of politics, Aristotle propounded that humans are inherently political and demonstrate an essential part of their humanity when participating in civic affairs.

Philosophy was a subject of great interest to Aristotle, and he theorized that philosophy was the foundation of the ability to understand the basic axioms that comprise knowledge. In order to study and question completely, Aristotle viewed logic as the basic means of reasoning. To think logically, one had to apply the syllogism, which was a form of thought comprised of two premises that led to a conclusion; Aristotle taught that this form can be applied to all logical reasoning.

"Man is by nature a political animal."
—Aristotle

To understand reality, Aristotle theorized that it must be categorized as substance, quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition. To know and understand the reality of an object required an explanation of its material cause, which is why it exists or its composition; its formal cause, or its design; its efficient cause, or its creator; and its final cause, or its reason for being.

Aristotle agreed with his mentor, Plato, concerning the field of ethics. The goodness of a being depended upon the extent to which that being achieved its highest potential. For humans, the ultimate good is the continual use and development of their reasoning powers to fullest capacity. To effect fulfillment and contentment, humans must follow a life of contemplation, rather than pleasure.

The fundamental source of Aristotle's theories were his lectures to his students, which were compiled into several volumes. They include Organum, which discusses logic; Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima, concerning the soul; Rhetoric; Politics; Nichomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics, involving principles of conduct; and De Poetica, or poetics.

He also wrote Constitution of Athens, a description of the foundations of the government of Athens. The work was discovered in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotle died in 322 b.c., in Chalcis, Greece.

References in periodicals archive ?
He further points out that icons seem to be based on natural resemblance, but in fact, they are determined by semantic conventions and therefore consider the non-Aristotelian methodology beyond the fixity of Aristotelian logic.
Another group of essays tackles the representational and intentional nature of thought, again focusing on problems related to intellectual cognition in specific (as opposed to sensation and the workings of the 'inward wits' such as memory--each of these would merit a separate treatment in any full consideration of the Aristotelian tradition).
Neither can the reader be surprised by the judgment that the Jesuits tried to conciliate the Aristotelian view of the soul with the Christian position concerning the soul's substance, while the natural philsophers of Padua reclaimed the independence of philosophical investigations from Christian dogma.
One need not accept the whole Aristotelian teleological system to recognize that what plagues modern men and women is not their lack of a private self-interested existence but, rather, their lack of meaningful connection to other people and the world they share.
Despite Descartes having rejected many elements of late Aristotelian assumptions about how the soul might be constructed and influenced by time, it doesn't mean he wholeheartedly disregarded Aristotelian ideas altogether: "Descartes was in fact interested in at least two issues also found in the late Aristotelian psychology of time" (145).
Dougherty's project would be quite useful if the discussion addressed the really difficult problems posed by science for any Aristotelian philosophy.
Scientists, which includes psychiatrists, should be aware that we are living in a period of passing, unavoidably and irrevocably, from the anthropomorphic, antiquated, 'objective,' two-valued, Aristotelian orientations to the infinite-valued, modern, scientific, process non-Aristotelian orientations.
This distinction, Echenique argues, shows that the Aristotelian does not regard children from the objective stance, as the Strawsonian view recommends (31).
In the Metalogicon, John argues that the Aristotelian Organon (the logical works) should be the basis of the educational curriculum.
The book contains several appendices (on the contrast between Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian systems, and the full table of contents to Science and Sanity) and an index.
Rubinelli initiates her study with an elaboration of the Aristotelian conception of topoi as a productive system that facilitated the generation of a wide range of arguments.
Even more studying needs to be done to get to grips with some tricky handicaps at Dundalk, where Aristotelian has a fine chance of getting off the mark in the 7.