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Aristotle was born in 384 b.c., in Stagira, Greece. He achieved prominence as an eminent philosopher who greatly influenced the basic principles of philosophy and whose ideologies are still practiced today.

Aristotle was a student of the renowned philosopher Plato and tutored Alexander the Great, who became King of Macedonia in 336 b.c.

Aristotle established his own school in the Lyceum, near Athens, in 335 b.c. He often lectured his students in the portico, or walking place, of the Lyceum. The school was subsequently called Peripatetic, after the Greek word peripatos for "walking place."

In 323 b.c. the reign of Alexander ended with his death, and Aristotle sought refuge at Chalcis.

Aristotle formulated numerous beliefs about the reasoning power of humans and the essence of being. He stressed the importance of nature and instructed his pupils to closely study natural phenomena. When teaching science, he believed that all ideas must be supported by explanations based upon facts.

Concerning the realm of politics, Aristotle propounded that humans are inherently political and demonstrate an essential part of their humanity when participating in civic affairs.

Philosophy was a subject of great interest to Aristotle, and he theorized that philosophy was the foundation of the ability to understand the basic axioms that comprise knowledge. In order to study and question completely, Aristotle viewed logic as the basic means of reasoning. To think logically, one had to apply the syllogism, which was a form of thought comprised of two premises that led to a conclusion; Aristotle taught that this form can be applied to all logical reasoning.

"Man is by nature a political animal."

To understand reality, Aristotle theorized that it must be categorized as substance, quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition. To know and understand the reality of an object required an explanation of its material cause, which is why it exists or its composition; its formal cause, or its design; its efficient cause, or its creator; and its final cause, or its reason for being.

Aristotle agreed with his mentor, Plato, concerning the field of ethics. The goodness of a being depended upon the extent to which that being achieved its highest potential. For humans, the ultimate good is the continual use and development of their reasoning powers to fullest capacity. To effect fulfillment and contentment, humans must follow a life of contemplation, rather than pleasure.

The fundamental source of Aristotle's theories were his lectures to his students, which were compiled into several volumes. They include Organum, which discusses logic; Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima, concerning the soul; Rhetoric; Politics; Nichomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics, involving principles of conduct; and De Poetica, or poetics.

He also wrote Constitution of Athens, a description of the foundations of the government of Athens. The work was discovered in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotle died in 322 b.c., in Chalcis, Greece.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature.
Various risk stratification models have been developed but two widely used are the "Aristotle Basic Complexity score"7 and the "RiskAdjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1)"4.
Sixteenth-century translations of classical authorities such as Aristotle, Xenophon, and Cicero therefore shed new light both on the psychology of Coriolanus as hero and on the sociopolitical context of the play.
(29) No original: "Aristotle's Rhetoric, mediated by Quintilian, gave Valla the opportunity to escape from the limitations of Ciceronian rhetoric.
"The Platos, Aristotles, Socrates, specifically with regard to the way they mirrored society and spoke of the social political process, have become comedians.
Critical histories in Urdu inform us that any systematic criticism in Arabic and Persian is only subsequent, and by implications subservient, to the translation of Aristotles Poetics into these languages, most often without critically problematizing the phenomenon, even if the case is really so.
(2) Heidegger, in a lecture course from the winter of 1921-22, generalizes Forschung as "a concrete seeking after answers." See Phanomenologische Interpretationen zu Aristotles (Einfuhrung in die phenomenologische Forschung) in Gesamtausgabe (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1975-), 61:3 / Phenomenological Interpretations of Aristotle: Initiation into Phenomenological Research, trans.