Aristotle

(redirected from Aristotles)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to Aristotles: Plato

Aristotle

Aristotle. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Aristotle.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Aristotle was born in 384 b.c., in Stagira, Greece. He achieved prominence as an eminent philosopher who greatly influenced the basic principles of philosophy and whose ideologies are still practiced today.

Aristotle was a student of the renowned philosopher Plato and tutored Alexander the Great, who became King of Macedonia in 336 b.c.

Aristotle established his own school in the Lyceum, near Athens, in 335 b.c. He often lectured his students in the portico, or walking place, of the Lyceum. The school was subsequently called Peripatetic, after the Greek word peripatos for "walking place."

In 323 b.c. the reign of Alexander ended with his death, and Aristotle sought refuge at Chalcis.

Aristotle formulated numerous beliefs about the reasoning power of humans and the essence of being. He stressed the importance of nature and instructed his pupils to closely study natural phenomena. When teaching science, he believed that all ideas must be supported by explanations based upon facts.

Concerning the realm of politics, Aristotle propounded that humans are inherently political and demonstrate an essential part of their humanity when participating in civic affairs.

Philosophy was a subject of great interest to Aristotle, and he theorized that philosophy was the foundation of the ability to understand the basic axioms that comprise knowledge. In order to study and question completely, Aristotle viewed logic as the basic means of reasoning. To think logically, one had to apply the syllogism, which was a form of thought comprised of two premises that led to a conclusion; Aristotle taught that this form can be applied to all logical reasoning.

"Man is by nature a political animal."
—Aristotle

To understand reality, Aristotle theorized that it must be categorized as substance, quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition. To know and understand the reality of an object required an explanation of its material cause, which is why it exists or its composition; its formal cause, or its design; its efficient cause, or its creator; and its final cause, or its reason for being.

Aristotle agreed with his mentor, Plato, concerning the field of ethics. The goodness of a being depended upon the extent to which that being achieved its highest potential. For humans, the ultimate good is the continual use and development of their reasoning powers to fullest capacity. To effect fulfillment and contentment, humans must follow a life of contemplation, rather than pleasure.

The fundamental source of Aristotle's theories were his lectures to his students, which were compiled into several volumes. They include Organum, which discusses logic; Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima, concerning the soul; Rhetoric; Politics; Nichomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics, involving principles of conduct; and De Poetica, or poetics.

He also wrote Constitution of Athens, a description of the foundations of the government of Athens. The work was discovered in the late nineteenth century.

Aristotle died in 322 b.c., in Chalcis, Greece.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature.
Another contemporary conduct manual, consisting of the paraphrased work of several classical authorities (including Aristotle, Xenophon, and Cicero) and translated from French into English some ten years prior to Coriolanus, reports in one passage whose dualism would appeal to Coriolanus that Cicero "dooth shewe what occupations and gaines ought to bee accounted honest, and what vile and dishonest.
Criticism courses in Urdu departments usually begin with Aristotle and come down to various abstruse postmodernisms, with all the noble efforts at translation directed towards the treatises from Eliot to Showalter.
Yet, what we require is precisely this account, that is, an account of the genesis of philosophical eros, or an account of how the natural desire for knowledge, as Aristotle called it, is transformed into the pursuit of rigorous science.
Aristotle advices to whoever may be interested in his practical philosophy; who has the unavoidable responsibility of generating the conditions of possibility for the civic life and the life of wisdom: we must know the soul, investigate the Socratic preoccupation for the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and so, unmask the prejudices and beliefs that are within reach of a critical mind; and in a certain way that is what the Stagirite does by reveling the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as a collective reality linked to the pathologies, the excesses and subversions manifested in the political organizations.
Keywords: Aristotle, dialectics, metaphysics, technique.
The name Aristotle was very familiar at the time--Diogenes Laertes lists no less than eight different Aristotles--and this particular young lad is probably the one who later became one of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens after the Peloponnesian War.
He then explains that the legend is the result of a mistranslation and consequent misreading of Aristotle: "Out of the words of Aristotle, evily understood by Pliny and other ancient writers, came that errour of the young Vipers eating their way out of their mothers belly, for instead of the little thin skin which Aristotle saith they eat thorough, other Authors have turned it to the belly, which was clean from Aristotles meaning" (2: 803).
Thus, an extensive reading of Strauss and his disciples might lead us to think that Aristotles was a sexual egalitarian who would have been an abolitionist in antebellum America, that Thucydides was writing his Histories to vindicate democratic imperialism as an ideal, and that Plato was a metaphysical skeptic who only pretended to accept eternal forms.
The true 'counterpart to Greece' is only to be found, Jullien thinks, in China: he tells me that then you emerge from the 'great European wellspring, the Hebrews and Aristotles.
However little we know of our Cro-Magnon grandparents, we can surmise that they were not Aristotles saying that anger is a boiling of the blood, or Pyrrhons, who cautioned that all emotion is regrettable and to be ignored.