Articles


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Articles

Series or subdivisions of individual and distinct sections of a document, statute, or other writing, such as the Articles of Confederation. Codes or systems of rules created by written agreements of parties or by statute that establish standards of legally acceptable behavior in a business relationship, such as articles of incorporation or articles of partnership. Writings that embody contractual terms of agreements between parties.

See: commodities, merchandise, paraphernalia

ARTICLES. A division in some books. In agreements and other writings, for the sake of perspicuity, the subjects are divided into parts, paragraphs, or articles.

ARTICLES, chan. practice. An instrument in writing, filed by a party to a proceeding in chancery, containing reasons why a witness in the cause should be discredited.
     2. As to the matter which ought to be contained in these articles, Lord Eldon gave some general directions in the case of Carlos v. Brook, 10 Ves. 49. "The court," says he, "attending with great caution to an application to permit any witness to be examined after publication, has held where the proposition was to examine a witness to credit, that the examination is either to be confined to general credit; that is, by producing witnesses to swear, that the person is not to be believed upon his oath; or, if you find him swearing to a matter, not to issue in the cause, (and therefore not thought material to the merits,) in that case, as the witness is not produced to vary the case in evidence by, testimony that relates to matters in issue, but is to speak only to the truth or want of veracity, with which a witness had spoken to a fact not, in issue, there is no danger in permitting him to state that such fact, not put in issue, is false and, for the purpose of discrediting a witness, the court has not considered itself at liberty to sanction such a proceeding as an examination to destroy the credit of another witness, who had deposed only to points put in issue. In Purcell v. M'Namara, it was agreed that after publication it was competent to examine any witness to the point, whether he would believe that man upon his oath. It is not competent, even at law, to ask the ground of that opinion; but the general question only is permitted. In Purcell v. M'Namara, the witness went into the history of his whole life and as to his solvency, & c. It was not at all put at issue whether he had been insolvent, or had compounded with his creditors; but, having sworn the contrary, they proved by witnesses, that he, who had sworn to a, matter not in issue, had sworn falsely to that fact; and that he had been insolvent, and had compounded with his creditors; and it would be lamentable, if the court could not find means of getting at it; for he could not be indicted for perjury, though swearing falsely, the fact not being material. The rule is, in general cases the cause is heard upon evidence given before publication; but that you may examine after publication, provided you examine to credit only, and do not go to matters in issue in the cause, or in contradiction of them, under pretence of examining to credit only. Those depositions," he continued, "appear to me material to what is in issue in the cause; and therefore must be suppressed," See a form of articles in Gresl. Eq. Ev. 140, 141; and also 8 Ves. 327; 9 Ves. 145; 1 S. & S. 469.

ARTICLES, eccl. law. A complaint in the form of a libel, exhibited to an ecclesiastical court.

References in classic literature ?
They were to frame a NATIONAL GOVERNMENT, adequate to the EXIGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT, and OF THE UNION; and to reduce the articles of Confederation into such form as to accomplish these purposes.
Bobbinet, when his customers were properly out of hearing, "that THESE young ladies should let such an article slip through their fingers.
A few days afterwards I sent my mother a London evening paper with an article entitled 'An Auld Licht Community,' and they told me that when she saw the heading she laughed, because there was something droll to her in the sight of the words Auld Licht in print.
Martin contented himself by picturing his brother-in-law's surprise on Sunday morning when he opened his EXAMINER and saw the article on the treasure-hunters.
Yet I can't help being impressed by this," and, having found the article in the magazine to which he referred, he handed it to his chum.
This article made a great deal of noise, and, being copied into all the papers, seriously depressed the advocates of the rash tourist.
"Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above articles, the said man-mountain shall have a daily allowance of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 of our subjects, with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our favour.
The single article of ardent spirits, under federal regulation, might be made to furnish a considerable revenue.
The author of the article was a young man, an invalid, very bold as a writer, but extremely deficient in breeding and shy in personal relations.
But the writer of the article in question goes on to point out, with insight and justice, that for a great number of people (20,000, I think he says) it is a means of livelihood - that it is, in his own words, an industry.
On the next day, in its number of January 15th, the Daily Telegraph published an article couched in the following terms:
I think I'll do an article for one of the reviews, and then I can just print it afterwards as a preface."