Although the artificial person
theory was predominant in the early nineteenth century, the idea of not letting business interfere with the public good still remains.
Just like natural persons, artificial persons
may be the holders of an amparo action for the protection of the inherent and recognized constitutional rights, such as the right to appear in a court of law, economic rights, freedom of property, the exercise of the action being accomplished by their legal representatives.
We can also explore extended mindedness from the point of view of the artificial person
towards the use of natural persons--that natural persons are extended mind tools of artificial persons
(106) For Hobbes the family is also an artificial person
, a "body politic." See Hobbes, Leviathan, xxii.
From a consideration of these sources (i.e., Ashkenazi and Horowitz), it would seem that Jewish law accepts the category of an "artificial person
," but refuses to afford it the same status granted by Anglo-American legal tradition.
The distinction between natural and artificial person
is certainly useful, allowing the "author" of an act to be in one place while the artificial person
is elsewhere, exercising his knowledge, skill, and power in the author's name.
Elizabeth Wolgast, a professor of philosophy at California State University, Hayward, attempts to tackle one of the central issues in the field of professional ethics: Can we meaningfully use the language of responsibility when we wish to evaluate the moral import of such "artificial persons
" as corporations, the military, the bureaucracy, and the state?
There are wonky legal discussions about the differences between ''artificial persons
'' (corporations) and ''natural persons'' (the kind with flesh and blood).
The new income tax in an interim one for three years starting from the current FY and amounting to 5 percent; it is applicable on any normal or artificial persons
whose annual income exceeds EGP one million (some USD 140,214).
Federal Election Commission, in which the court ruled that corporations have the same rights to free speech as people, was questionable "because it elevated the rights of corporations, which are artificial persons
, with natural persons' inalienable right of political expression" (317).
Classifying types of personhood can be done in multiple ways; the most divergent way of classifying persons is the legal distinction between natural and artificial persons
. (180) "'Natural persons are such as the God of nature formed us.' Artificial persons
1) The budgetary funds are allocated to the artificial persons
subordinated to the public administration to pay the salaries, carry out the investments, etc.