Asylum seekers can gain asylum and refugee
status through other channels, such as applying from the asylum seeker's home state or by first traveling to the host state with proper travel documentation on other terms (e.g., through the regular travel or work visa process) and requesting permanent or semi-permanent refugee status after entry.
(59.) "Liberalization" and "harmonization" are stated goals of the CEAS regime; "liberalization" refers to improvements in asylum processing and refugee welfare infrastructure, while "harmonization" is defined as the process of making asylum and refugee
policies more similar across European states.
The AOBTC includes international human rights law, asylum and refugee
law, interviewing techniques, decision-making and decision-writing skills, effective country conditions research skills, and computer skills.
The Resource Information Center (RIC) in the Asylum Division of the Office of Asylum and Refugee
Affairs serves both Asylum Officers and Refugee Adjudicators, and is responsible for the collection and/or production and distribution of materials regarding human rights conditions around the world.
(283.) See, e.g., INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONSULTATIONS ON MIGRATIONS ASYLUM AND REFUGEES
, ASYLUM PROCEDURES: REPORT ON POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN IGC PARTICIPATING STATES 2009, at 239 [hereinafter IGC] (describing the Netherlands' defunct asylum visa and long-standing resettlement program).