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Bit error rate analysis of rectangular QAM/FSO systems using an APD receiver over atmospheric turbulence channels".
A System for Simulating Road-Representative Atmospheric Turbulence for Ground Vehicles in a Large Wind Tunnel," SAE Int.
So keeping a telescopic eye on the star gives a measure of atmospheric turbulence.
For many practical applications, the fluctuations of the refractive index are relatively small: this applies both to the atmospheric turbulence, and to the water reservoirs of fluctuating temperature and salinity.
If you do this regularly, you'll start to notice how variable the quality of the night sky can be - based on weather conditions, atmospheric turbulence and the amount of light pollution affecting your skies.
Increasing airtime Global warming already costs the airlines increasing airtime and wear and tear because atmospheric turbulence seems to be on the increase.
Because atmospheric turbulence and inclement weather can significantly affect a free space optical system's performance at operationally useful ranges, numerous past FSO research and development programs have attempted to use complex technology to reduce the impact of turbulence and weather effects and improve performance.
In the 1980s a notable advance was made in understanding the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere with the development of large atmospheric radars that detect the electromagnetic wave scattering caused by atmospheric turbulence.
They cover statistics of CDL echo signal, statistics of lidar estimates of the radial velocity and Doppler spectrum width, measuring wind velocity and direction, estimating atmospheric turbulence parameters from wind measurements, and lidar investigations of aircraft wake vortices.
To overcome atmospheric turbulence, which plagues Earth-based telescopes by causing the image to blur, Close's team developed a very powerful adaptive optics system that floats a thin (1/16th of an inch) curved glass mirror (2.
p] is the attenuation efficiency of point errors, k = 2[pi]/[lambda] is the wave number of light, x and x' denote transverse coordinates of the photon at the z and source plane respectively, the function [psi](x,x',z) = [chi](x,x',z) + is(x,x',z) describes the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a spherical wave, here terms [chi](x,x',z) and s(x,x',z) account for the stochastic log-amplitude and phase fluctuations, respectively, imposed by atmospheric turbulence.
The adaptive optics used in modern telescopes consists of measures to counteract atmospheric turbulence which causes the bending of light.

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