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This decentralized, federalist, and autonomist model, rather than statism and sovereignty, Wolf believed, should serve as guide to the future.
In addition, Spanish policies constantly changed the Cuban political landscape, with more liberal administrations giving hope to autonomists and more repressive regimes fueling nationalist efforts even as they devastated their leadership.
Meanwhile, the "autonomists", adherents to developmentalist thinking and advocates of universalism in foreign policy, have concerns of a more political-strategic nature regarding the North/South confrontation, and seek a rapprochement with other "emerging" countries, which would have common characteristics with Brazil.
The book begins with a discussion of the origins of autonomist ideology, a brainchild of the prolific and brilliant Russian-Jewish historian Simon Dubnov (1860-1941).
In the hope that this Review will not merely reproduce the autonomist versus-apologist shouting match, my plan is to accept the autonomists' premise.
(14) Lest there be potential misunderstanding here, Bifo and other autonomists are acutely aware that all manner of invidious distinctions and inequities are involved in the deployment of cognitive labour.
It helped to explain why there was no "mass revolutionary movement in Puerto Rican history." Autonomists like Munoz Marin had proposed a "geographical determinist explanation...Puerto Ricans never developed a successful revolutionary movement against Spain because Puerto Rico was so small and there was no place to hide." In his earlier works, Lewis maintained that the culture of poverty operated independently from race or ethnicity.
Seasonal militant jihadists, mobile sectarian outfits, elite defectors, autonomists, criminal networks and armed militias under the patronage of different local and external patrons all have stepped up their activities--either to settle accounts, maintain material interests, expand their political power and territory, or hamper efforts aimed at a post-Arab Spring renegotiation of Yemen's social contract.
Autonomists, for the most part members of the creole landholding class, desired a self-governing Puerto Rico that would be an equal partner in a Spanish federation.
As one member notes, "We are pure protest, saying to all, 'Superheroes in balaclavas and acid-bright tights seize public space in Moscow." Pussy Riot's spokeswoman, Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, explains that the group "consists of anarchists, Trotskyists, feminists and autonomists" and is "united by feminism, anti-authoritarianism, and opposition to Putin."
This erasure of the central government's economic assistance to the region during the Cold War, particularly during the tenure of General Hugo Banzer Suarez (himself a proud cruceno), allows autonomists to posit a sort of Bolivian meritocracy (Eaton, 2007).
(113) In contrast to the dominant classical Marxist tradition that emphasizes the power of capital, autonomists such as Negri insist that Marx's analysis affirms rather the power of the creative human energy Marx called 'labour'--'the living, form-giving flame' constitutive of society.