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In Figure 8, it can be seen that the permeability that ranges from 3.48 x [10.sup.-14] to 67.16 x [10.sup.-14] [m.sup.2] decreases with an increase in the axial stress. The decrease process can be divided into two stages which correspond to the two stages of the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution.
The axial stress increases with the increase in axial strain until a peak value.
where [N.sub.i] is the axial stress of the strain gauge of point i, D is the diameter of the bolt, E is the elastic modulus of the bolt, and [[epsilon].sub.i] is the strain value of point i.
[[sigma].sub.m]: Average axial stress on the cross section of the tubular string due to axial force, N/[m.sup.2]
LCP axial stress was 31.94 times that of NALCP axial stress, and the tension shear stress was 1.16 times that of NALCP shear stress.
In this figure [h.sub.p] shows the thickness of the upper adhesive layer, [h.sub.b] shows the thickness of the substrate, [h.sub.a] shows the thickness of the lower portion of the adhesive layer, the radius of the fiber grating is set up [r.sub.g], width is set up d, at the same time, [[tau]], [[tau].sub.pb], [[tau]], and [[tau].sub.ah] represent respective shear force between each adjacent layer, bonded length is set to 2L, and d[[sigma].sub.g], d[[sigma].sub.p], d[[sigma].sub.b], and d[[sigma].sub.a] are axial stress of the fiber grating, the upper portion of the adhesive layer, the substrate, and the lower adhesive layer, respectively.
(2002) found that the initiation of cracks is mostly affected by the orientation of the weakest mineral relative to the axial stress. Kwasniewski (2007) described the dilatancy process of foliated schist under true triaxial compression.
This is why the reassessment interval is considerably longer for the axial stress level of 60%, compared to 75% SMYS.
The degree of axial shrinkage has increased with increasing axial stress as demonstrated in Figure 4a.
This factor is applied to the axial stress produced in the median plane of the specimen (barreled curve).
Similarly, figure 5 illustrates the axial stress for different number of bilayers, being observed the reduction in the minimum axial stress as a consequence of the increase of bilayers.
By the axial stress of the membrane voltage there is a complex condition and the resulting shape known as "umbrella".