Battel

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Battel

Physical combat engaged in by an accuser and accused to resolve their differences, usually involving a serious crime or ownership of land. It was recognized by the English king from the eleventh to seventeenth centuries.

Trial by battel was introduced into England by William the Conqueror. It was based upon the belief that the winner of the battle, which was tried by God, was the party who was in the right in the dispute.

BATTEL, in French Bataille; Old English law. An ancient and barbarous mode of trial, by Bingle combat, called wager of battel, where, in appeals of felony, the @appellee might fight with the appellant to prove his innocence. It was also used in affairs of chivalry or honor, and upon civil cases upon certain issues. Co. Litt. 294. Till lately it disgraced the English code. This mode of trial was abolished in England by stat. 59 Geo.,III. c. 46.
     2. This mode of trial was not peculiar to England. The emperor Otho, A. D. 983, held a diet at Verona, at which several sovereigns and great lords of Italy, Germany and France were present. In order to put a stop to the frequent perjuries in judicial trials, this diet substituted in all cases, even in those which followed the course of the Roman law, proof by combat for proof by oath. Henrion de Pansey, Auth. Judic. Introd. c. 3; and for a detailed account of this mode of trial see Herb. Antiq. of the Inns of Court, 119-145.

References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding the JMPs stance on the ongoing battels and on their relationship with Ansar Allah Zaid said: "we confirm as political parties that we cannot at all tell our brothers in Ansar Allah and the GPC, but Ansar Allah specifically, with all due respect to the great efforts exerted by the GPC, go and fight and we will be sitting here, we are with you and the political system will be with, you and if the situation required that we take up arms we will do that, we are ready to take up arms."
GENEVA, Aug 18 (KUNA) -- The United Nations Special Envoy on Syria Staffan de Mistura announced Thursday that the UN had temporary suspended its humanitarian missions in Syria due to the violent battels in Aleppo.
[...] The battels joyned and made a cruell fight, which continued from morning till noone: and then was Naiam taken and brought before Cublai [...].
The Cardinall Iulian mooude this lucklesse Warre, Causing the King and States of Hungarie To breake their truce; which they had solemne sworne; The Pope dispenc't with them, so would not God, It he be witnesse: he wils faith be kept Without exception, be it with Infidels, As this was here; the sequell proude it true, In manner thus: Huniades that mannadgde all, Dislikte this warre: yet Vladislaus This youthfull King, eggde on by Iulian, Would needs breake faith with mighty Amurath, And neere to Varna both their armies met, Where he so plac't his battels as a Lake, Flanckt the left side; a wood was on the reere: And on the right hand all their waggons went: Had they kept so, Byzantium had beene ours: And Greece once more it had beene Christendome.
According to James Wright's retrospective account in 1699, the Red Bull was "mostly frequented by citizens, and the meaner sort of people," (4) a group perhaps best placated by nostalgic tales, visual effects, and the exploits of larger-than-life classical heroes--audiences who enjoyed nothing but "drums, Trumpets, Battels and Hero's," according to that theater's detractors.
Holland Battels (1990) stated that the continuous addition of large quantities of fine sediment in the upper Mississippi River may cause a reduction in the current bivalve fauna, especially if it is substituted by fine sediment particles, reducing the diversity of particle sizes.
Here, as in prior studies (Battels, Magun-Jackson & Kemp, 2009; Pintrich, 2000), students who are focused on performance (product), and not on learning (process), do not want a regulatory teaching process nor do they have a self-regulated learning process; instead, they prefer a kind of independent learning.
British Battels Ltd, Granville Way, Bicester, Oxon 0X26 4JT Tel: 01869 247038 Fax: 01863 242979 e-mail bakels@bakels.com Website: www.bntishbakels.co.uk
Indiana University is using an Assessment Center to measure learning in seven qualitative skill areas: decision-making, initiative, leadership, planning, organizing, teamwork and oral communication (Bommer, Rubin, and Battels, 2005).
Battels is a term for college expenses at which institution?
For some theoretical background, see for instance, [4] and the references therein; for solving the Sylvester equation, one of the most popular methods is due to Battels and Stewart [3], which is based on the Schur decomposition of matrices.