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All participants in the Betula study gave informed consent, and the study was approved by the Regional Ethics Review Board at Umea University with DNR: 2012-12-31M.
nana pollen grains are similar to those of birch trees, such as Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.
In Pakistan, Himalayan musk deer inhabits sub- alpine scrub, usually found between 3000m and 4000m in association with Betula utilis or in Gilgit area Juniperus polycarpus (Green, 1986).
According to the MRPP test, the species composition on fertilized and nonfertilized peat blocks in the greenhouse did not differ significantly (Table 4); Betula spp.
Juglans regia, Quercus spp, Picea smithiana, Betula utilis and Acer ceasium ranked second in the category of fuel wood.
Only 8 specimens from this list (Callitriche intermedia, Circaea alpina, Salsola kali, Swertia perennis, Lunaria rediviva, Cakile maritima, Dentaria bulbifera, Betula nana) have survived in the herbarium.
Key words: Alces alces, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, birch, browsing, damage, decay, discoloration, moose, wood quality.
American birch, yellow birch, hard birch, betula wood, Canadian yellow birch, Quebec birch, grey birch, silver birch, swamp birch
North American Ogham: Celtic Wisdom for the Prairies & Central Plains OGHAM CELTIC CENTRAL PLAINS Beith Silver Birch River Birch Betula pmdula Betula nigra Luis Rowan Red Cedar Sorbus aucuparia Juniperus virginiana Nuin Ash Redbud (Nion) Fraxinus excelsior Cercis canadensis Fearn Alder Red Maple Alnus glutinosa Acer rubrum Saille Willow Willow Salix spp.
Variation of basic density and Brinell hardness within mature Finnish Betula pendula and B.