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A paper commonly used in various courts—such as a probate, matrimonial, or traffic court—that is served upon an individual to notify him or her that he or she is required to appear at a specific time and place.

Reference to a legal authority—such as a case, constitution, or treatise—where particular information may be found.

Cases are published in a series of books called reporters, which are compilations of judicial decisions made in a certain court, state, or jurisdiction. Reporters are published in consecutively numbered volumes, each of which contains the most recently decided cases. When the volume numbers on a set of reporters get too high, the publisher will begin a new set with a new series of numbers.

To refer to a particular case in a reporter, a designation including the volume number, the name of the reporter, and the page number is given. If, for example, a case decided in the U.S. Supreme Court were cited as 60 S. Ct. 710, the case would be in volume 60 of the Supreme Court Reporter on page 710. To promote uniformity of citations, many lawyers and law students use The Blue Book: A Uniform System of Citation, commonly referred to simply as The Blue Book. This manual is published jointly by law schools at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and the University of Pennsylvania. Other citation manuals have also been published.When a court issues a citation, it orders a person to appear at a certain time and place. Failure by the person to adhere to the requirements in a citation results in punishment by the court. On appeal, a court may issue a citation of appeal, giving parties notice of the appeal and ordering them to appear in court. Issuance of a citation is required in order to give an appellate court jurisdiction over the appeal. The clerk of a court is generally required to issue a citation.

Police officers also issue citations for minor offenses, especially for traffic violations. The citation that an officer gives to a violator states the charge and requires an appearance before a judge on a specified date, subject to punishment for failure to appear. Citations issued by police officers for minor violations are typically only admissible for a criminal action that is based upon the violation. In most jurisdictions, evidence of an arrest from a citation is not admissible in a civil action based upon the same facts.


Legal Publishing.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. 1) a notice to appear in court due to the probable commission of a minor crime such as a traffic violation, failure to keep a dog on a leash, drinking liquor in a park where prohibited, letting a dog loose without a leash, and in some states for possession of a small amount of marijuana. Failure to appear can result in a warrant for the citee's arrest. 2) a notice to appear in court in a civil matter in which the presence of a party appears necessary, usually required by statute, such as a person whose relatives wish to place him/her under a conservatorship (take over and manage his/her affairs). 3) the act of referring to (citing) a statute, precedent-setting case or legal textbook, in a brief (written legal court statement) or argument in court, called "citation of authority." 4) the section of the statute or the name of the case as well as the volume number, the report series and the page number of a case referred to in a brief, points and authorities, or other legal argument. Example: United States v. Wong Kim Ark, (1898) 169 U. S. 649, which is the name of the case, the year when decided, with the decision found at volume 169 of the United States [Supreme Court] Reporter at page 649. A citation also refers to the case itself, as in "counsel's citation of the Wong case is not in point." (See: cite)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.


1 the procedure of serving notice of court proceedings on a person, instructing them to attend.
2 reference to a precedent or other authority in a court or legal writing. So far as citation in court is concerned, English civil courts have detailed practice rules which restrict indiscriminate use of citations, especially those from lower courts or external jurisdictions. In this respect the Lord Chief Justice in 2001 was following in the steps of the Roman emperor Theodosius II whose Law of Citations of AD 426 laid down rules as to which jurists might be cited and in what rank of importance.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

CITATION, practice. A writ issued out of a court of competent, jurisdiction, commanding a person therein named to appear and do something therein mentioned, or to show cause why he should not, on a day named. Proct. Pr. h.t. In the ecclesiastical law, the citation is the beginning and foundation of the whole cause; it is said to have six requisites, namely.: the insertion of the name of the judge; of the promovert; of the impugnant; of the cause of suit; of the place; and of the time of appearance; to which may be added the affixing the seal of the court, and the name of the register or his deputy. 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 453-4; Ayl. Parer. xliii. 175; Hall's Adm. Pr. 5; Merl. Rep. h.t. By, citation is also understood the act by which a person is summoned, or cited.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
The creation of digital archives that are accessible through the Web forced publishers to come up with a practical solution to identify not only individual works but also parts of the works and their combinations, such as bibliographic citations, abstracts, references, full text, and illustrations.
CD-ROM and online database searching is wonderful (if you have access to good databases with decent software, that is), but getting a nice hit list of bibliographic citations, descriptors, and abstracts is only half of the journey.
Bibliographic citation management products do not provide an integrated online library system, but rather a way to manage bibliographic citations, perform retrievals, and create bibliographies formatted in a variety of publication styles.
As part of their faculty liaison function, collection development librarians at Memorial University of Newfoundland traditionally have circulated to their academic department(s) bibliographic citations for newly catalogued monographs purchased to support teaching and research in the department.
Books that may be needed again that are no longer in print can be requested without the "display holdings" charge, since I have the complete bibliographic citation and lenders.
Authoritative, primary sources are used extensively and complete bibliographic citations, including Websites, are provided in reference lists.
This lucid, deeply researched account is more than twenty-five percent notes and bibliographic citations. Emerson has served as a park ranger at the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, Illinois.
Bellis posits that the connections bibliographic citations establish between documents are the operation of the scientists themselves in the process of exposing and propagandizing their findings to the community of their peers: bibliographic citations form one visible and traceable channel linking scientific documents, a citation makes visible an intellectual link in the process of transmitting and re-elaborating scientific knowledge, knowledge production is the combined effect of a large number of individual actors' strategies, and all metrics fall short of an ultimate understanding of scientific and technological change.
Under the contract the KEVRIC team prepares biomedical and scientific bibliographic citations for entry into MEDLINE, NLM's bibliographic database that is the primary component of PubMed.
The separate indexes of Handel's Works, Names, and Authors make it easy to find individual works, and, so far as I can determine, the bibliographic citations are accurate and the annotations eminently sensible.
International in scope and 506 pages long, Olsen's Chronology also includes extensive indexes and bibliographic citations that provide more depth for the beginning women's history researcher.
Providing an authoritative and exhaustive reference, the three volumes catalog the fishes of Australia, with entries for each genus containing a drawing, description, and list of references, followed by sub-entries for each subgenus containing brief entries that include bibliographic citations, distribution, ecology, and data on the museums containing examples.

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