The most common treatments provided for CRPS include physical therapy, NSAIDs, antidepressant medications, calcitonin, anticonvulsant medications, corticosteroids, opiate medications, sympathetic ganglion blocks, bier block
, and some rare modalities like manual lymph drainage and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (18, 22-24).
(10) Studies have indicated that less pain is associated with this approach than with intravenous sedation, (11,12) although results have been less favorable in comparison to the Bier block
Some of the procedures are beyond the usual Practice of most primary care physicians: for example, myringotomy, Bier block
, adult circumcision, tracheostomy, suprapubic catheter insertion, tubal ligation, therapeutic abortion, extensor tendon repair, and lateral anal sphincterotomy.
In a study by Kol et al,  dexmedetomidine and lornoxicam were added to prilocaine in Bier block
. They reported that addition of dexmedetomidine had shortened the sensory block onset time and prolonged the sensory block recovery time more than lornoxicam.