alloy

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ALLOY, or ALLAY. An inferior metal, used with gold. and silver in making coin or public money. Originally, it was one of the allowances known by the name of remedy for errors, in the weight and purity of coins. The practice of making such allowances continued in all European mints after the reasons, upon which they were originally founded, had, in a great measure, ceased. In the imperfection of the art of coining, the mixture of the metals used, and the striking of the coins, could not be effected with, perfect accuracy. There would be some variety in the mixture of metals made at different times, although intended to be in the same proportions, and in different pieces of coin, although struck by the same process and from the same die. But the art of coining metals has now so nearly attained perfection, that such allowances have become, if not altogether, in a great measure at least, unnecessary. The laws of the United States make no allowance for deficiencies of weight. See Report of the Secretary of State of the United States, to the Senate of the U. S., Feb. 22, 1821, pp. 63, 64.
     2. The act of Congress of 2d of April, 1792, sect. 12, directs that the standard for all gold coins of the United States, shall be eleven parts fine to one part of alloy; and sect. 13, that the standard for all silver coins of the United States, shall be one thousand four hundred and eighty-five parts fine, to one hundred and seventy-nine parts alloy. 1 Story's L. U. S. 20. By the act of Congress, 18th Feb. 1831, Sec. 8, it is provided, that the standard for both gold and silver coin of the United States, shall be such, that of one thousand parts by weight, nine hundred shall be of pure metal, and one hundred of alloy; and the alloy of the silver coins shall be of copper, and the alloy of gold coins shall be of copper and silver, provided, that the silver do not exceed one-half of the whole alloy. See also, Smith's Wealth of Nations, vol. i., pp. 49, 50.

References in periodicals archive ?
The aims of this experimental study were to establish the elastic properties of the Ti-15Zr binary alloy and to evaluate how these properties influence its biomechanical behaviour relative to the supporting bone.
Gonzalez-Velazquez, "Numerical analysis of phase decomposition in A-B binary alloys using Cahn-Hilliard equations," Materials Research, vol.
Among Ni-Ti binary alloys are the most representative memory alloy materials.
Hurle, "The effect of an electric field on the morphological stability of the crystal-melt interface of a binary alloy. II.
The GRF of any solute element is given by the factor, m[C.sub.o](k - 1), where m is the gradient of the liquidus line in the binary alloy phase diagram, [C.sub.o] is the concentration of the solute in the alloy, and k is the partition coefficient.
[21] strongly recommended the use of second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method (2NN MEAM) when choosing an interatomic potential in the NiTi binary alloy. Furthermore, a comparison of the predicted results with the experimental ones [3] indicated that such a model could be available for representing the characteristics of the low temperature martensitic structure (B19').
Massalski, Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, American Society for Metals, Metal Park, Ohio, USA, 1986.
Baker, Ed., ASM Handbook Volume 3: Binary Alloy Phase Diagram, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, 1999.
The effect of Nd addition to Ni-Ti binary alloy on microstructure and martensite transformation temperature remains unclear.
However, some binary alloy systems such as Cu-Zr, Pd-Si, and Cu-Hf as well as Ni-Nb alloys exhibit exceptionally high glass-forming ability (GFA) so that BMGs can be produced from these alloys [11-15].
In a typical Al-Zn binary alloy microstructure aluminum-rich dendrites contain dissolved zinc, while zinc solid solution is present around the dendrite arms.