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With the exception of the egg stage, most of the stages were unaffected when cohorts were protected from biotic factors. A significantly ([d.sub.f1,16]; F = 26.40; P = 0.0001) lower estimate of leaf area damage was obtained (0.83 [+ or -] 0.68 [cm.sup.2]) when the P.
Students need to be able to differentiate between abiotic and biotic factors and understand which of these affect arthropods, such as temperature, nutrients, predators, host plant, etc.
Additional research is needed before generalizations can be made regarding the relative roles of biotic factors and individual body size on reproductive allocation in grasshoppers.
Biotic factors also have a profound effect on the edaphic environment.
Likewise, defining the aforementioned biotic factors influencing reproductive success for the Houston toad are a logical extension of this study.
These results imply that for groups 2 and 3 environmental factors may play a key role in their abundance and community structure while biotic factors such as competition, predation and grazing patterns may define population dynamics in groups 1 and 4.
Third, replicate measurements made at 0.5, 4.8, and 12 months post-bum suggested that the increase in Geolycosa densities in burned scrub relative to unburned scrub was attributed to abiot ic factors, such as increased availability of burrow sites and increased soil temperatures that hastened growth and date of first reproduction, rather than biotic factors, such as more or higher quality prey for spiders foraging at the soil surface.
Five of the 16 chapters are on uses and effects of fertilizers and their interactions with abiotic and biotic factors and other nutrients.
Irrespective of important biotic factors, which can affect the initiation of spider ballooning, there are important mechanical constraints that limit the parameter ranges over which the activity can be sustained on a purely physical basis.
(i) the abiotic factors that affect the net growth rate of population, (ii) the biotic factors that may affect the fitness in a regulatory manner and (iii) spatial movement related factors.
The editors have organized the contributions that make up the main body of the text in four parts devoted to diseases caused by biotic factors, mites and insects that cause disease-like symptoms in grapes, disorders caused by abiotic factors, and grapevine disease management.
The physiology of plants under stress: soil and biotic factors. John Wiley & Sons.