Factors such as twining, genetic abnormalities, deficiencies in iodine and folic acid and family history of birth defect
have also been implicated in various birth malformations.
The prevalence of reported birth defects
cases potentially related to Zika virus infection increased in jurisdictions with confirmed local transmission, from 2.8 per 1,000 live births (182 cases) during the first half of 2016 to 3.0 per 1,000 live births (211 cases) during the second half (CI = 2.4-3.2 and CI = 2.6-3.4, respectively; p = 0.10).
Dunwoodie "It's also not yet known what dose of vitamin B3 will prevent miscarriage and birth defects
Cragan and her colleagues hope that this evidence will further solidify the link between Zika virus and birth defects
and pave the way for more population-based studies.
As concerns continue to mount regarding the possible alleged risks of Zofran use during pregnancy, a growing body of research has identified a host of birth defects
that may impact babies exposed to the controversial anti-nausea drug in utero.
At a cost of between Dh4,000 -- 6,000 per test, Bourn Hall Clinic Dubai commonly sees couples with a prior history of birth defects
being tested pre-pregnancy, rather than those simply wanting to assess the risk.
In addition to fertility reduction and the development of biopsychosocial medical model, the burden caused by birth defects
is increasingly prominent.
"Our findings suggest a link between brain birth defects
and recreational drug use in expectant mothers," said the lead author of the study, Anna David from the University College London.
However some of these birth defects
are fatal and serious if they are not treated right within a few days of the birth."
The most common birth defects
are congenital heart defects [3, 6, 7], neural tube defects, and Down syndrome .
However, latest research shows that babies of fathers deficient in folic acid are at a greater risk of birth defects
People with birth defects
, that is with any structural or functional abnormality present from birth, certainly in Mann's terms, suffer marginalisation, discrimination and stigmatisation.