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Related to Birth defects: anencephaly, Down syndrome, spina bifida

BIRTH. The act of being wholly brought into the world. The whole body must be detached from that of the mother, in order to make the birth complete. 5 C. & P. 329; S. C. 24 E. C. L. R. 344 6 C. & P. 349; S. C. 25 E. C. L. R. 433.
     2. But if a child be killed with design and maliciously after it has wholly come forth from the body of the mother, although still connected with her by means of the umbilical cord, it seems that such killing will be murder. 9 C. & P. 25 S . C. 38 E. C. L. R. 21; 7 C. & P. 814. Vide articles Breath; Dead Born; Gestation; Life; and 1 Beck' s Med. Jur. 478, et seq.; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 438; 7 C. & P. 814; 1 Carr. & Marsh. 650; S. C. 41 E. C. L. R. 352; 9 C. & P. 25.
     3. It seems that unless the child be born alive, it is not properly a birth, but a carriage. 1 Chit. Pr. 35, note z. But see Russ. & Ry. C. C. 336.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Factors such as twining, genetic abnormalities, deficiencies in iodine and folic acid and family history of birth defect have also been implicated in various birth malformations.
The prevalence of reported birth defects cases potentially related to Zika virus infection increased in jurisdictions with confirmed local transmission, from 2.8 per 1,000 live births (182 cases) during the first half of 2016 to 3.0 per 1,000 live births (211 cases) during the second half (CI = 2.4-3.2 and CI = 2.6-3.4, respectively; p = 0.10).
Dunwoodie "It's also not yet known what dose of vitamin B3 will prevent miscarriage and birth defects.
Cragan and her colleagues hope that this evidence will further solidify the link between Zika virus and birth defects and pave the way for more population-based studies.
As concerns continue to mount regarding the possible alleged risks of Zofran use during pregnancy, a growing body of research has identified a host of birth defects that may impact babies exposed to the controversial anti-nausea drug in utero.
At a cost of between Dh4,000 -- 6,000 per test, Bourn Hall Clinic Dubai commonly sees couples with a prior history of birth defects being tested pre-pregnancy, rather than those simply wanting to assess the risk.
In addition to fertility reduction and the development of biopsychosocial medical model, the burden caused by birth defects is increasingly prominent.
"Our findings suggest a link between brain birth defects and recreational drug use in expectant mothers," said the lead author of the study, Anna David from the University College London.
However some of these birth defects are fatal and serious if they are not treated right within a few days of the birth."
However, latest research shows that babies of fathers deficient in folic acid are at a greater risk of birth defects than others.
People with birth defects, that is with any structural or functional abnormality present from birth, certainly in Mann's terms, suffer marginalisation, discrimination and stigmatisation.