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SUBSTITUTE, contracts. One placed under another to transact business for him; in letters of attorney, power is generally given to the attorney to nominate and appoint a substitute.
     2. Without such power, the authority given to one person cannot in general be delegated to another, because it is a personal trust and confidence, and is not therefore transmissible. The authority is given to him to exercise his judgment and discretion, and it cannot be said that the trust and confidence reposed in him shall be exercised at the discretion of another. 2 Atk. 88; 2 Ves. 645. But an authority may be delegated to another, when the attorney has express power to do so. Bunb. 166; T. Jones, 110. See Story, Ag. Sec. 13, 14. When a man is drawn in the militia, he may in some cases hire a substitute.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Our studies to date have shown that HemoTech is safe, effective, inexpensive to manufacture, and convenient to administer," maintains Jan Simoni, who has served since 1993 as the Blood Substitute Group Leader and associate professor of research in the Department of Surgery, where he co-invented HemoTech along with fellow researcher Mario Feola.
Needless to say, many biomedical researchers have since embraced Chang's artificial cellular-based approach to carry hemoglobin through the body, and companies are presently conducting clinical trials with blood substitutes.
However, the study protocol allows PolyHeme to be given for up to 12 hours after arrival at the hospital in those patients who received the blood substitute during the ambulance ride.
HemoBioTech is engaged in the commercial development of HemoTech, a novel human blood substitute technology exclusively licensed from Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.
This blood substitute can be produced in large quantities and stored for two years at 41[degrees]F, and for more than four months at 86[degrees]F, compared to 40 days at 39[degrees]F for natural blood.
But a new fluorocarbon-based blood substitute, called Oxygent, uses bromo-perfluoro-octane, a fluorocarbon that is quickly excreted by the lungs.
It's the first blood substitute ever approved for use.
Another blood substitute has been tried on people who have refused blood transfusions because of religious convictions.
But the blood substitute and protocols developed in order to advance cryonics technology have immediate applications in low-temperature medicine.
For clinicians, hematologists, medicinal chemists, biotechnologists, and blood substitute researchers, this volume offers thorough treatment of underlying principles as well as cutting edge innovations.