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For example, Asian and Hispanic women have body dissatisfaction and body shame due to their failure to achieve Western ideals of beauty and thinness (Gil-Kashiwabara, 2002; Mok, 1998).
Studies have shown younger than older women are at greater risk for higher body shame and eating disorder symptomatology (e.
In addition, it was predicted that the indirect effects of ethnicity, religiosity, and age would be mediated by spirituality, body shame and BMI.
Body shame was measured using two items from the body shame (BS) subscale of the Objectified Body Consciousness scale (OBC: McKinley & Hyde, 1996).
These proposed linkages of BMI and weight discrepancy are supported by studies finding that eating disorder symptomatology is mediated by body shame in women (Boisvert, 2006; Fredrickson et al.
While empirical research on women has shown that younger than older women experience more body shame and a consequent increase in disordered eating (McKinley, 1999; Tiggemann & Lynch, 2001), no such research exists for men.
The purpose of the present exploratory study was to test a path model that included sexual orientation along with body shame, BMI, weight discrepancy and age as risk factors for eating disorder symptomatology, shown in Figure 1.
Body shame was measured as a continuous variable using the body shame subscale of the Objectified Body Consciousness scale (OBC: McKinley & Hyde, 1996).
Furthermore, they found body shame to be related to lower body esteem, higher levels of surveillance, and restricted eating and disordered eating in young women.
For example, McKinley (1999) found that body shame had significant negative correlations with multiple dimensions of psychological well-being, including autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and self-acceptance, whereas body surveillance had significant negative relationships with most dimensions, such as autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance.
High scores on Body Shame reflect feelings about the body that are consistent with cultural norms (e.
Becky, who spotted the mannequin in her local store in Hull, said: "We aren't out to body shame skinny girls, far from it.