where G, M, [m.sub.p], [k.sub.B], and r corresponds to the gravitational constant, the mass of the system, the particle mass,

Boltzmann's constant, and the radius.

If t(E) does not strongly depend on energy within a few [k.sub.B]T of [E.sub.F], where [k.sub.B] is

Boltzmann's constant and [E.sub.F] is the Fermi energy, then it can be shown using (1) and (2) that [S.sub.T] reduces to the Mott formulae [17]

Parameter Symbol Temperature T Electrolyte concentration [C.sub.f] Fluid pH pH Dielectric permittivity in vacuum [[epsilon].sub.0] Relative permittivity [[epsilon].sub.r]

Boltzmann's constant [k.sub.b] Elementary charge e Avogadro's number N Ionic mobility of [Na.sup.+] in [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT solution REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ionic mobility of [H.sup.+] in [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT solution REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ionic mobility of [Cl.sup.-] in [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT solution REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Ionic mobility of O[H.sup.-] in [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT solution REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Disassociation constant of water [K.sub.[omega]] (22[degrees]C) Surface site density [[GAMMA].sub.s] Binding constant for sodium [K.sub.Me] adsorption Disassociation constant for [K.sub.

where the constant [B.sub.2] = 3[k.sub.B]T/2[mu], [k.sub.B] is the

Boltzmann's constant, T is temperature, and [mu] is gas viscosity.

Here [tau] is the lifetime; [[tau].sub.0] is the time constant; U is the activation energy; T is the absolute temperature and [kappa] is

Boltzmann's constant. The probability of the package non-failure can be found, using an exponential law of reliability,

where [P.sub.o] = 1.013 x 105 Pa is the ambient pressure, [[gamma].sub.gl] is the gas-liquid surface tension, k is

Boltzmann's constant, and T = 298 K is the ambient temperature.

where [[mu].sub.t] is the mobility at temperature T([degrees]K), E is the activation energy, R is

Boltzmann's constant, and [[mu].sub.0] is a temperature-independent constant.