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BOUNDARY, estates. By this term is understood in general, every separation, natural or artificial, which marks the confines or line of division of two contiguous estates. 3 Toull. n. 171.
     2. Boundary also signifies stones or other materials inserted in the earth on the confines of two estates.
     3. Boundaries are either natural or artificial. A river or other stream is a natural boundary, and in that case the centre of the stream is the line. 20 John. R. 91; 12 John. R. 252; 1 Rand. R. 417; 1 Halst. R. 1; 2 N. H. Rep. 369; 6 Cowen, R. 579; 4 Pick. 268; 3 Randolph's R. 33 4 Mason's R. 349-397.
     4. An artificial boundary is one made by man.
     5. The description of land, in a deed, by specific boundaries, is conclusive as to the quantity; and if the quantity be expressed as a part of the description, it will be inoperative, and it is immaterial whether the quantity contained within the specific boundaries, be greater or less than that expressed; 5 Mass. 357; 1 Caines' R. 493; 2 John. R. 27; 15 John. 471; 17 John. R. 146; Id. 29; 6 Cranch, 237; 4 Hen. & Munf. 125; 2 Bay, R. 515; and the same rule is applicable, although neither the courses and distances, nor the estimated contents, correspond with such specific boundaries; 6 Mass. 131; 11 Mass. 193; 2 Mass. 380; 5 Mass. 497; but these rules do not apply in cases where adherence to them would be plainly absurd. 17 Mass. 207. Vide 17 S. & R. 104; 2 Mer. R. 507; 1 Swanst. 9; 4 Ves. 180; 1 Stark. Ev. 169; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 276; 2 Hill. Ab. c. 24, Sec. 209, and Index, h. t.
     6. When a boundary, fixed and by mutual consent, has been permitted to stand for twenty-one years, it cannot afterwards be disturbed. In accordance with this rule, it has been decided, that where town lots have been occupied up to a line fence between them, for more than twenty-one years, each party gained an incontrovertible right to the line thus established, and this whether either party knew of the adverse claim or not; and whether either party has more or less ground than was originally in the lot he owns. 9 Watts, R. 565. See Hov. Fr. c. 8, p. 239 to 243; 3 Sum. R 170 Poth. Contr. de Societe, prem. app. n. 231.
     7. Boundaries are frequently marked by partition fences, ditches, hedges, trees, &c. When such a fence is built by one of the owners of the land, on his own premises, it belongs to him exclusively; when built by both at joint expense, each is the owner of that part on his own land. 5 Taunt. 20. When the boundary is a hedge and a single ditch, it is presumed to belong to him on whose side the hedge is, because he who dug the ditch is presumed to have thrown the earth upon his own land, which was alone lawful to do, and that the hedge was planted, as is usual, on the top of the bank thus raised. 3 Taunt. 138. But if there is a ditch on each side of the hedge, or no ditch at all, the hedge is presumed to be the common property of both proprietors. Arch. N. P. 328; 2 Greenl. Ev. Sec. 617. A tree growing in the boundary line is the joint property of both owners of the land. 12 N. H. Rep. 454.
     8. Disputes arising from a confusion of boundaries may be generally settled by an action at law. But courts of equity will entertain a bill for the settlement of boundaries, when the rights of one of the parties may be established upon equitable grounds. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3923.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
For clarification, we call the nodes belonging to boundaries as actual boundary nodes and call the other nodes as actual interior nodes.
"I am very happy, it went to close but happy that we crossed the line." Islamabad captain Sami praised Dawson for hitting a last ball boundary. "Yes, it was exciting and I tried my level best and bowled full length but credit to Dawson who hit it for a four,"said Sami.
Bello noted that in the past, projects were unwittingly cited in parts of Kogi State around the Abaji boundary areas, which he said were not part of the Abuja landmass.
The ministry said that the meeting had also reached mutual understanding and resolved two Outstanding Boundary Problem (OBP) areas, the border areas near the vicinity of Simantipal River and Kampung Long Pasia in Sipitang district in the Sabah-Kalimantan Utara sector.
During the survey, work on construction of subsidiary pillars between already settled main boundary pillars 81 and 82 along the zero line, that is, agreed and settled international boundary, was also undertaken.
According to the details, unprovoked firing is continuing in Shakargarh and Zafarwall sectors of the working boundary.
Our proposed algorithm belongs to the third category where, without network synchronization and position information and using only 1- and 2-hops, we present a scalable algorithm that recognizes both the inner and boundary nodes in a two-dimensional space with heterogeneous sensing range.
(6) Adhering rigidly to boundaries may constitute a form of boundary violation.
THE IEEE 1149.1 standard, commonly known as boundary scan, is a well-adopted electronics manufacturing test strategy used throughout the lifecycle of a printed circuit board assembly--from prototypes, new product introduction builds, production runs and functional tests, to field repair.
The following 10 |draft community boundary changes have been endorsed by the cabinet for final debate by the full council: 1.
THE Brecon Beacons National Park's boundary has been digitally interpreted for the first time since its designation in 1955 as a result of a joint partnership project led by Brecon Beacons National Park Authority and Natural Resources Wales.