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Related to Branchial arches: Branchial cyst, branchial fistula
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Developmental anomalies of structures derived from the upper half of the first branchial arch are common, giving rise to deformities such as cleft lip or cleft palate.10 However, abnormal or incomplete development of structures derived from the lower half of the first branchial arch is rare.11 These anomalies may arise from failure of fusion of the first pair of branchial arches or a failure of mesodermal penetration into the midline of mandibular part of the first branchial arch presenting as a complete or incomplete cleft of the lower lip, mandible, and tongue with occasional associated deformities of soft tissue structures in the neck derived from the lower branchial arch.12
As a complex heterogeneous alteration, patients showing its wide manifestations have received various diagnoses, such as Goldenhar Syndrome, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, syndrome of the first and second branchial arches, craniofacial microsomia, and among others.
Gill rakers in Cetorhinus maximus are present on both sides of each of the five branchial arches. From the inner edge of each arch extends a 10-cm diameter strip of mucous membrane (LACM 35876-1), and to either side of this lies a single continuous row of gill rakers with their free ends (filaments) directed towards the mouth.
This was particularly true for the jaws and branchial arches.
Vascular rings result from the abnormal or incomplete regression of one of the 6 embryonic branchial arches. Contrast swallow studies have been used to classify the vascular causes of tracheal compression based on the indentations on the oesophagus.
As Tp63 is expressed in the branchial arches (a derivative of neural crest cells), it is not surprising that dental anomalies are common in these group of disorders.
The embryological origin of CMCC has been disputed, but the most widely accepted explanation is failure of fusion of the branchial arches in the midline.
Gill rakers, as well as minute toothed projections termed microbranchiospines, are attached to the branchial arches. The gill rakers, the microbranchiospines, or both, of tilapia have been hypothesized to form either a dead-end sieve or a hydrosol filter (Greenwood, 1953; Gosse, 1956; Whitehead, 1959; Beveridge et al, 1988; Beveridge and Baird, 2000).
For tailbud stage embryos (~stage 24), staining was observed in the branchial arches, as well as along the dorsal midline in control and vehicle-alone conditions (Figure 8B) and in embryos exposed to nonylphenol (Figure 8D) or methoxychlor (data not shown).
In embryologic development, the first and second branchial arches evolve to form not only the external ear but the bones of conduction in the middle ear, the mandible, and structures of the neck, he explained.
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS, OMIM 164210), also known as Goldenhar Syndrome (GS), is a complex condition characterized by abnormal prenatal development of facial structures derived from the first and second branchial arches of the embryo with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 9:100,000 [1].