By estimation

BY ESTIMATION, contracts. In sales of land it not unfrequently occurs that the property is said to contain a certain number of acres, by estimation, or so many acres, more or less. When these expressions are used, if the land fall short by a small quantity, the purchaser will receive no relief. In one case of this kind, the land fell short two-fifths, and the purchaser received no relief. 2 Freem. 106. Vide 1 Finch, 109 1 Call, R. 301; 6 Binn. Rep. 106 1 Serg. & Pawle, R. 166; 1 Yeates, R. 322 2 John. R. 37 5 John. R. 508; 15 John. R. 471; 1 Caines, R. 493; 3 Mass. Rep. 380; 5 Mass. R. 355; 1 Root: R. 528; 4 Hen. & Munf. 184. The meaning of these words has never been precisely ascertained by judicial decision. See Sugd. Vend. 231 to 236; Wolff, Inst. Sec. 658 and the cases cited under the articles Constitution; More or less; Subdivision.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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In the next experiment, we further compare the DOA estimation accuracy of all eight methods through 500 Mont Carlo trials by estimation K = 2 uncorrelated narrowband sources with an angle separation of 10[degrees], and their directions are -5[degrees] + [phi] and 5[degrees] + [phi], respectively, with [phi] chosen uniformly and randomly in the range from -0.5[degrees] to 0.5[degrees] in each trial.
Clearly, the accuracy of [RCV.sup.i] estimation would be affected by estimation accuracy of both [BV.sup.i] and [PV.sup.i].