Co-infections like hepatitis B, hepatitis C, TB and pneumonia, among others, can cause a transient increase (which is called a blip) in the viral load and decrease the CD4 cell
count, thus lowering the body's ability to kill the co-infecting bacteria or virus.
The introduction of ART has drastically changed the prognosis of HIV infected patients, in terms of decreasing mortality rate and decreasing incidences of opportunistic infections (OIs).The effect of ART is also well established for surrogate-markers such as the viral load and CD4 cell
The key to reducing the mortality from Cryptococcal meningitis, which is a consequent of crag positivity, is early diagnosis of crag in ART-naive AIDS patients prior to initiation of ART therapy and the integration of both ART therapy and primary prophylaxis with Fluconazole; this has been shown to reduce mortality from Cryptococcal meningitis consequent of crag positivity even at CD4 cell
count within the range of <100 cells/[micro]l.
Investigators therefore conduced a meta-analysis of studies examining trends in baseline CD4 cell
counts and viral load set-points.
The SMART trial enrolled 5,472 HIV-positive adults with CD4 cell
counts of at least 350 cells/[mm.sup.3] at study inception.
Antibodies carrying fluorescent tags latch onto CD4 cells
in the blood.
Also, they recorded a higher parasitaemia compared to those with CD4 higher than 200 cells/[micro]l, this possibly could be due to the fact that the CD4 cells
which play a central role in the immune defence against many pathogens have been depleted by the HIV virus.
Preclinical studies showed the feasibility of the approach in normal CD4 cells
and in CD4 cells
taken from 20 early- and late-stage patients.
A better understanding of this problem may allow scientists to find a way to enable HIV-specific CD4 cells
to do their job in controlling this virus, as CD4 cells
do with other viruses.
Initially, the researchers identified CD8 cells, which are involved in the autoimmune process and are supposedly responsible for destroying CD4 cells
in the immune system.
*The CD4 cell
is one of the body's main lines of defence against infectious diseases.
The proportion of CD4 cells
normally exceeds that of CD8 cells.