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CALIFORNIA. The name of one of the states of the United States. It was admitted into the Union, by an Act of Congress, passed the 9th September, 1850, entitled "An act for the admission of the state of California into the Union."
     Sec. 1. This section enacts and declares that the state of California shall be one of the United States, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, in all respects whatever.
     Sec. 2. Enacts that the state of California shall be entitled to two representatives, until the representatives in Congress shall be apportioned according to the actual enumeration of the inhabitants, of the United States.
     Sec. 3. By this section a condition is expressly imposed on the said state that the people thereof shall never interfere with the primary disposal of the public lands within its limits, nor pass any law, nor do any act, whereby the title of the United States to, and right to dispose of the same, shall be impaired or questioned. It also provides that they shall never lay any tax, or assessment of any description whatever, upon the public domain of the United States; and that in no case shall non-resident proprietors, who are citizens of the United States, be taxed higher than residents; that all navigable waters within the said state shall be common highways, forever free, as well to the inhabitants of said state, as to citizens of the United States, without any tax, impost or duty therefor; with this proviso, viz., that nothing contained in the act shall be construed as recognizing or rejecting the propositions tendered by the people of California, as articles of compact in the ordinance adopted by the convention which formed the constitution of that state.
     2. The principal features of the constitution, of California, are similar to those of most, of the recently formed state constitutions. It establishes an elective judiciary, and: confers on the executive a qualified veto. It prohibits the creation of a state debt exceeding $300,000. It provides for the protection of the homestead from execution, and secures the property of married females separate from that of their husbands. It makes a liberal provision for the support of schools, prohibits the legislature from granting divorces, authorizing lotteries, and creating corporations, except by general laws, and from establishing any bank's of issue or circulation. It provides also that every stockholder of a corporation or joint-stock association, shall be individually and personally liable for his proportion of all its, debts or liabilities. There is also a clause prohibiting slavery, which, it is said, was inserted by the unanimous vote of the delegates.

References in classic literature ?
The sufferings of the travellers among these savage mountains were extreme: for a part of the time they were nearly starved; at length, they made their way through them, and came down upon the plains of New California, a fertile region extending along the coast, with magnificent forests, verdant savannas, and prairies that looked like stately parks.
Indeed, all California, extending along the Pacific Ocean from latitude 19 30' to 42 north, is represented as one of the most fertile and beautiful regions in North America.
Lower California, in length about seven hundred miles, forms a great peninsula, which crosses the tropics and terminates in the torrid zone.
The outcome of it was that of these two odd persons having equally odd notions of duty, the one went to California, as the interest of his client required, and the other remained at home in compliance with a wish that her husband was scarcely conscious of entertaining.
"Was there anything curious about his life in California?"
"And then you were together five years in California, so that this business dates back not less than eleven years at the least?"
"It is quite six years since Douglas left California. You followed him next year, did you not?"
I have here a nice beautiful new cow, the best milker in California."
"Dogs are not eaten in California. Why not leave him here?
It has never entered your mind that possibly he might prefer California to Alaska.
The following year, at twenty years of age, Emil Gluck was enrolled as an instructor of chemistry in the University of California. Here the years passed quietly; he faithfully performed the drudgery that brought him his salary, and, a student always, he took half-a- dozen degrees.
Photographers snapped him, he was besieged by reporters, women's clubs throughout the land passed resolutions condemning him and his immoral theories; and on the floor of the California Assembly, while discussing the state appropriation to the University, a motion demanding the expulsion of Gluck was made under threat of withholding the appropriation--of course, none of his persecutors had read the book; the twisted newspaper version of only three lines of it was enough for them.