The most frequently damaged cardiac chamber
was the right ventricle (4/10) followed by the left ventricle (2/10).
Isolated Coronary artery fistula (CAF) are one of least common cases encountered in pediatric catheterization laboratory and defined as an abnormal linking between one or more coronary arteries and an adjacent cardiac chamber
or vascular structure1-3.
Two years after the TAH, the tumor had extended into the IVC and right cardiac chamber
; thus, she underwent tumor resection surgery at another hospital and was admitted to our care some years after her last surgery.
When there is fluid in the pleural space the edges of the heart and the lungs are better visualized; therefore, there is a better acoustic window which allows a better evaluation of cardiac chambers
, especially the left atrium.
Recommendations for cardiac chamber
quantification by echocardiography in adults: An update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
11), cardiac chambers
(4, 33) and its relations with the coronary arteries (26, 34).
In our patient, CVAE may have resulted from the retrograde flow of air from the mesenteric veins and portal vein followed by the passage of air through the right cardiac chambers
and cerebral venous vasculature.
The structural deformation of cardiac chambers
and of the pulmonary veins is among rare cases of cardiac dyspnea .
When exposed to venous blood, they may reach the IVC, right cardiac chambers
or pulmonary artery 4.
A PM mainly consists of a lithium iodine battery, an integrated circuit, and 1 to 3 electrodes that connect the generator to the heart, whose function is to "sense" the cardiac intrinsic electrical activity and "pace" the cardiac chambers
, when necessary.
Pericardium, myocardium, endocardium and cardiac chambers
were within normal limits.
The application of SPECT in MUGA has the benefit of increased spatial resolution and contrast, beneficially isolating the ventricles without overlap of the other cardiac chambers