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Syndecan-4 prevents cardiac rupture and dysfunction after myocardial infarction.
A series of 32 patients with cardiac rupture demonstrated an average age of 39.5 years and a near 2:1 male-to-female ratio [3].
The cardiac rupture may be clinically undetected and mostly identified on a routine post-infarction echocardiogram.
This trauma does not cause cardiac rupture or contusion, but rather a perfectly timed strike during the heartbeat induces VF, which is fatal without prompt and effective resuscitation.
Lead complications include lead dislodgement less than 2% for ventricular lead and less than 5% for atrial lead, lead fracture, insulation break, cardiac rupture caused by lead and pacemaker malfunction.The incidence of pacemaker syndrome ranges from 7% (which needs pacemaker revision) to 27% (mild to moderate symptoms)9.
In this case, other causes (cancer, uraemia, spontaneous cardiac rupture and recent heart surgery) were excluded.
Inevitably, complications eventually developed; they were rare but included arterial and cardiac rupture, endocarditis, sepsis and thrombosis.