cartel

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Cartel

A combination of producers of any product joined together to control its production, sale, and price, so as to obtain a Monopoly and restrict competition in any particular industry or commodity. Cartels exist primarily in Europe, being illegal in the United States under antitrust laws. Also, an association by agreement of companies or sections of companies having common interests, designed to prevent extreme or Unfair Competition and allocate markets, and to promote the interchange of knowledge resulting from scientific and technical research, exchange of patent rights, and standardization of products.

In war, an agreement between two hostile powers for the delivery of prisoners or deserters, or authorizing certain nonhostile intercourse between each other that would otherwise be prevented by the state of war, for example, agreements between enemies for intercommunication by post, telegraph, telephone, or railway.

Although illegal in the United States, foreign cartels influence prices within the United States on imported and smuggled goods that they control. The United States has sued the De Beers diamond cartel several times, and works to stop the flow of illegal narcotics, whose production and distribution are largely controlled by drug cartels.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cartel

n. 1) an arrangement among supposedly independent corporations or national monopolies in the same industrial or resource development field organized to control distribution, to set prices, to reduce competition, and sometimes to share technical expertise. Often the participants are multi-national corporations which operate across numerous borders and have little or no loyalty to any home country, and great loyalty to profits. The most prominent cartel is OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), which represents all of the oil producing countries in the Middle East, North Africa and Venezuela. Many cartels operate behind a veil of secrecy, particularly since under American anti-trust laws (the Sherman and Clayton Acts) they are illegal. 2) criminal syndicates like the international drug cartel headquartered in Colombia. (See: antitrust laws)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

cartel

see COMPETITION, COMPETITION POLICY.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

CARTEL,war. An agreement between two belligerent powers for the delivery of prisoners or deserters, and also a written challenge to a duel.
     2. Cartel ship, is a ship commissioned in time of war, to exchange prisoners, or to carry any proposals between hostile powers; she must carry no cargo, ammunitions, or implements of war, except a single gun for signals. The conduct of ships of this description cannot be too narrowly watched. The service on which they are sent is so highly important to the interests of humanity, that it is peculiarly incumbent on all parties to take care that it should be conducted in such a manner as not to become a subject of jealousy and distrust between the two nations. 4 Rob. R. 357. Vide Merl. Rep. b. t.; Dane's Ab. c. 40, a. 6, 7; Pet. C. C. R. 106; 3 C. Rob. 141 C. Rob. 336; 1 Dods. R. 60.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
have explained that while cartels may experiment with different
"theory"; it is a fact that for the past century, cartels have
scholarship had also noted that cartels often use inter-competitor sales
Under the Philippine Competition Act, cartels can be administratively fined of up to P250 million.
The Leniency Program allows any entity that participates in a cartel to avail of leniency in the form of either immunity from suit or reduction of fines in exchange for the voluntary disclosure of information regarding the cartel it is involved in.
Polinar explained that it is similar to a whistle-blower program except that under the Leniency Program, the applicants are not just ordinary informants, but are themselves participants or members of the cartel being reported.
Cartel whistleblower program set in motion !-- -- MANILA, Philippines The Philippine Competition Commission (PCC) will start enforcing today (Jan.
The Leniency Program is similar to a whistleblower program except that the informants are themselves members of the cartel in question.
Under the program, the commission would only provide immunity from suit to the first cartel member to come forward with information the second member to come forward would only benefit from the disclosure of anticompetitive behavior through the reduction of fines.
class="MsoNormalMost of those found diverting piped water have been arraigned and charged.Earlier in December, Mr Sonko announced a S00,000 cash reward for anyone who will help the county identify those behind the cartels.
class="MsoNormalThe cartels have been diverting the water to private vendors by disconnecting pipes in Nairobi estates.
It's apparent that the shortages in many parts of Nairobi are as a result of sabotage by cartels whose days are now numbered.