If we are not open to reassessment of a causal relationship
, we run the risk of missing an opportunity to revise an incorrect assessment.
Finally, the balanced scorecard framework by Kaplan and Norton (1992) was used to classify terms under the causal relationship
consequences and the results are as follows: 16 terms classified as internal performance, 7 terms as customer satisfaction, 6 terms as business growth, and 4 terms as financial performance.
With this extended notion of Granger causality in mind, I reexamine the identified causal relationship
by estimating an ARMA(4,1) model for the growth rate of each of the three macro variables.
The National Panel is an independent body that strives to provide comprehensive and unbiased reviews and analyses, and which applies rigorous, systematic, and transparent research review methods in order to evaluate the scientific evidence for causal relationships
between interventions and outcomes.
But when parents of publicly schooled children commit child abuse, the same media sources do not insinuate that there is a causal relationship
between public schooling and the crime (which of course, there isn't--any more than there is a causal relationship
between home schooling and child abuse).
If no causal relationship
were required between 'advertising activities' and 'advertising injuries,' then 'advertising injury' coverage, alone, would encompass most claims related to the insured's business.
Despite examining case notes of 34 patients we did not find any clinical data to support a causal relationship
between PEM and dysphagia (refer Figure 1).
Zoch lumps together the Fordham Foundation report "Better Teachers, Better Schools" and the National Commission's "What Matters Most" as reports that assume a direct causal relationship
between a teacher's actions and the students' learning.
Even so, he adds, "whether there is a causal relationship
between phthalates and promotion of asthma is not clear.
Suggestive, but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship
It also explores the ways in which illegitimacy was a touchstone for trends in Quattrocento Florence, such as the close and possibly causal relationship
between foundling homes and illegitimacy rates and the legal disadvantages for bastards occasioned by the growing prominence of lineage-promoting native Florentine jurists.
But BOC said: 'No causal relationship
has ever been established between exposure to welding fumes and idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and this verdict is contrary to the scientific, medical and toxicological evidence.