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In contrast, LPS docks to a cell-surface receptor, mCD14, which then complexes with a transmembrane signaling receptor, the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) (31).
CCN1 induces a type-I interferon antiviral response using an integrin cell-surface receptor.
This protein is the primary cell-surface receptor that is commandeered by HIV, which uses it to enter white blood cells.
Comparisons of the blood of participants from both groups showed that the metabolic syndrome group exhibited significantly higher levels of both messenger RNA and cell-surface receptor proteins TLR2 and TLR4, increased levels of the master switch of inflammation in the nucleus, and a much higher concentration of immune soldiers in the blood, such as cytokines, that create inflammation.
DCC codes for a cell-surface receptor that binds to netrin-1, which scientists had previously linked to nervous system development.
"In this study, we've shown that cell-surface receptor P2X7, which was known to promote inflammation when stimulated, also plays a major role in the clot-forming process by activating tissue factor."
In healthy people, Prp acts as an ordinary cell-surface receptor, but its function is not clearly understood.
Both companies are testing hybrid molecules composed of the natural cell-surface receptor for TNF coupled to the back end of an antibody.