Chancellor

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Chancellor

A secretary, secretary of state, or minister of a king or other high nobleman.

The king's chancellor in England during the Middle Ages was given a variety of duties, including drawing up writs that permitted the initiation of a lawsuit in one of the common-law courts and deciding disputes in a way that gave birth to the system of law called Equity. His governmental department was called the Chancery.

The Chancellor of the Exchequer in England is like the secretary of the U.S. treasury, but in former times he also presided over a court called the Court of Exchequer, which at first heard disputes over money owed to the king but eventually heard a wide variety of cases involving money. This jurisdiction was founded on the theory that a creditor who could not collect a debt would later be less able to pay whatever he owed to the king.

Chancellor has also been used as the title for a judge who sits in a court of equity, for the president of a university, or for the public official in charge of higher education in some states.

chancellor

n. from the old English legal system, a chancellor is a judge who sits in what is called a chancery (equity) court with the power to order something be done (as distinguished from just paying damages.) Almost all states now combine chancery (equity) functions and law in the same courts. (See: equity)

Chancellor

see LORD CHANCELLOR.

CHANCELLOR. An officer appointed to preside over a court of chancery, invested with various powers in the several states.
     2. The office of chancellor is of Roman origin. He appears, at first, to have been a chief scribe or secretary, but he was afterwards invested with judicial power, and had superintendence over the other officers of the empire. From the Romans, the title and office passed to the church, and therefore every bishop of the catholic church has, to this day, his chancellor, the principal judge of his consistory. When the modern kingdoms of Europe were established upon the ruins of the empire, almost every state preserved its chancellor, with different jurisdictions and dignities, according to their different constitutions. In all he seems to have had a supervision of all charters, letters, and such other public instruments of the crown, as were authenticated in the most solemn manner; and when seals came into use, he had the custody of the public seal.
     3. An officer bearing this title is to be found in most countries of Europe, and is generally invested with extensive authority. The title and office of chancellor came to us from England. Many of our state constitutions provide for the appointment of this officer, who is by them, and by the law of the several states, invested with power as they provide. Vide Encyclopedie, b. t.; Encycl.. Amer. h.t.; Dict. de Jur. h.t.; Merl. Rep. h.t.; 4 Vin. Ab. 374; Blake's Ch. Index, h.t.; Woodes. Lect. 95.

References in periodicals archive ?
Chancellor of the Exchequer Hugh Gaitskell and his wife Anna Dora pay a visit to the plant on July 17, 1951
On Monday, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling told the Labour conference in Brighton, on England s south coast, that the world acknowledged that Brown has led the coordinated global effort during the economic crisis.
I think it's going to be more profound and long-lasting than people thought," the Chancellor of the Exchequer said.
According to the poll by pensions provider Friends Provident, much of this distrust focuses on Gordon Brown, with just 5 per cent of respondents saying they would trust the Prime Minister and former Chancellor of the Exchequer to manage their own pension funds.
Now, 27-year-old Naomi has some special photographs of her own to put into her own scrapbook - the day she met Prince Charles and the chancellor of the exchequer, Alistair Darling.
The UK's Chancellor of the Exchequer, Alistair Darling, announced, on 17 September, that the government would effectively guarantee all existing deposits in Northern Rock during the current instability on financial markets.
New British Prime Minister Gordon Brown picked his Cabinet members Thursday, choosing David Miliband as foreign secretary and Alistair Darling as chancellor of the Exchequer.
The government should cut duty on alcohol and cigarettes, reduce red tape and control rising fuel costs, according to trade groups petitioning the Chancellor of the Exchequer ahead of his pre-Budget report, set for 6 December.
Maggie's Fife was opened last month by local constituency MP and Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, has been leading the charge on debt remission for the world's poorest countries.
The trio were named in a list, published by Accountancy Age, that also included the chancellor of the exchequer.
newspaper the Eastern Daily Press recently reported that transport minister David Jamieson revealed to North Norfolk minister of parliament Norman Lamb during a conversation in the House of Commons that chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown will announce new biofuel regulations and duty reductions in his pre-budget report next month.

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