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Ryoo demonstrated that in addition to increasing chaperone molecules and increasing endoplasmic reticulum volume, cells could also relieve ER stress by inducing increased degradation of the mis-folded proteins.
This backup of unfolded HCV protein triggers the UPR (unfolded protein response), which attempts to clear the backlog of unfolded HCV protein, by stimulating the production of proteins (Bax and BiP), which triggers the production of more chaperone molecules.
One class of chaperone molecules, called chaperonins, performs the important task of shepherding newly made proteins away from each other and helping them fold into the correct shape.