DNA

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Related to Circular DNA: covalently closed circular DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Replicative activity of hepatitis B virus is negatively associated with methylation of covalently closed circular DNA in advanced hepatitis B virus infection.
Analysis of hepatitis B virus intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA and serum viral markers in treatment-naive patients with acute and chronic HBV infection.
In this the gentle significance in mobility shift in lane 2, 3, 4 perhaps by reason of speed variation in moving through gel it gives a raw thought that the size or charge variation might happened with the exacting lanes in the lesser extent their shape variation also been consider for this however, it can be assumed that the peptide is capable of binding to the circular DNA, and it as occurred shift up on the gel.
"Complete genome sequence of a new circular DNA virus from grapevine." Journal of Virology 86: 7715.
The transition rules of a PDA are suitable DNA molecules which hybridize to both ends of the circular DNA representing this PDA (Fig.
Plasmids are close circular DNA molecule that are propagated in a host microorganism mainly bacteria.
To evaluate the nuclease activity of the refolded protein, a test digestion was performed using 1 [micro]g rENDOG and 1 [micro]g of covalently closed circular DNA with the buffer Tango[TM] 1x (Fermentas[c]) for 2 h at room temperature and 37[degrees]C.
Unlike the viral methods, the circular DNA the Hopkins team used is designed to stay separate from the host cell's genome.
In the process of HBV replication, the pregenomic RNA, which is transcribed from covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), is reverse-transcribed by the polymerase protein of HBV.
Plasmids are autonomously replicating, circular DNA molecules that are naturally found in microoganisms.
Among the many forms of nucleic acid vaccine that can be constructed, circular DNA plasmids are the simplest (1, 2).
It achieves this through covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) that forms the template upon which viral particles can be replicated.