circumfluent

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(a) On a smooth substrate, the contact angle is larger and the evaporation rate is low; (b) recycling flow is constructed on the smooth substrate; (c) in the later stages of evaporation, many particles remain in the dispersion on the smooth substrate; (d) wedge-shaped cross-section of the deposition; (e) on a rough substrate, the contact angle decreases and the wicking effect emerges, leading to a higher evaporation rate; (f) there is no circumfluence on the rough substrate, with contact angle hysteresis being more evident; (g) almost no particles remain in the center; (h) high-shaped cross-section morphology.
Thus, a circumfluence was generated around the spike and the blunt body nose.
The numerical Schlieren photograph shows that the sideward jet flows in the shear layer exchanging with the flow after conical shock and circumfluence, rather than directly flowing into the circumfluence.
The main flow field configurations were similar for the pure spiked blunt bodies and spiked blunt bodies with sideward jets, including the separation shock, the conical shock, the reattached shock, the shear layer, and the circumfluence. The geometrical position of the shear layer was located near the inner tangent line connecting the spike nose and the blunt body shoulder.
The main flow field characteristics can be distinguished, including the shock waves, the corresponding interactions, and the circumfluence. Two nondimensionalized parameters have been defined for the main structure description in the flow field, denoted as [y.sub.1]/D and [y.sub.2]/D, as shown in Figure 17(a).
The spikes reconfigure the flow field around the blunt body, changing the bow shock into three main aspects: the conical shock, the reattached shock, and the circumfluence. The flow field reconfiguration greatly reduced the shock wave drag by eliminating the strong bow shock.
The circumfluence comes from this flow reattachment due to the pressure gradient generated.
During the circumfluence of the tube bank the conditions for the first row of tubes are only a little different from those around one tube.