Civil War

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Civil War

Civil war exists when two or more opposing parties within a country resort to arms to settle a conflict or when a substantial portion of the population takes up arms against the legitimate government of a country. Within International Law distinctions are drawn between minor conflicts like riots, where order is restored promptly, and full-scale insurrections finding opposing parties in political as well as military control over different areas. When an internal conflict reaches sufficient proportions that the interests of other countries are affected, outside states may recognize a state of insurgency. A recognition of insurgency, whether formal or de facto, indicates that the recognizing state regards the insurgents as proper contestants for legitimate power. Although the precise status of insurgents under international law is not well-defined, recognized insurgents traditionally gain the protection afforded soldiers under international rules of law pertaining to war. A state may also decide to recognize the contending group as a belligerent, a status that invokes more well-defined rights and responsibilities. Once recognized as a belligerent party, that party obtains the rights of a belligerent party in a public war, or war between opposing states. The belligerents stand on a par with the parent state in the conduct and settlement of the conflict. In addition, states recognizing the insurgents as belligerents must assume the duties of neutrality toward the conflict.


U.S. Civil War; War.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In 71 B.C., the mass executions along the Appian Way were only the latest in a series of horrors that Rome had endured during nearly two decades of civil war and despotic government.
The first provides the necessary context, with a series of finely judged essays on the causes and course of the civil wars (John Morrill), on the conflicting political ideas of the period (Martin Dzelzainis), and on "the printing revolution" which led to the dissemination of so many of the texts here discussed (Sharon Achinstein).
In the report, titled ''Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy,'' the Washington-based institution analyzed 52 major civil wars that occurred between 1960 and 1999.
Disarming the Nation: Women's Writing and the American Civil War. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999.
Harshly authoritarian states and institutionally consistent democracies experience fewer civil wars than intermediate regimes (de Nardo 1985; Francisco 1995; Muller and Weede 1990), which possess inherent contradictions as a result of being neither democratic nor autocratic.
Concluding a rich longitudinal survey of Alcott's fiction from Hospital Sketches Jo's Boys, she wisely cautions, "Alcott's women conclude their inner civil wars with a marked victory of civility over conflict." But if Alcott ultimately submits to civility, hers is at least a heroic struggle Stowe's rebellion against conventional femininity, by contrast, is weakly waged and lost within the confines of one novel.
Firstly, the civil war, as with all civil wars, brought about regional intervention and/or support from different neighboring states.
(68.) In order Massey, Bonnet Brigades, 56; Rable, Civil Wars, 165.
Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth, eds., The English Civil Wars in the Literary Imagination
Civil Wars in South Asia: State, Sovereignty, Development
As McCaffrey illustrates, however, the relationship between the Mexican and Civil wars can also be illusory.
Summary: In spite of ceaselessly escalating tensions and widespread fears of civil war in Lebanon, domestic and regional factors will likely contain the recent outbreak of street violence and prevent it from erupting into anything like the 1975-90 conflict, analysts told The Daily Star on Tuesday.