Napoleonic Code

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Napoleonic Code

The first modern organized body of law governing France, also known as the Code Napoleon or Code Civil, enacted by Napoléon I in 1804.

In 1800, Napoléon I appointed a commission of four persons to undertake the task of compiling the Napoleonic Code. Their efforts, along with those of J. J. Cambacérès, were instrumental in the preparation of the final draft. The Napoleonic Code assimilated the private law of France, which was the law governing transactions and relationships between individuals. The Code, which is regarded by some commentators as the first modern counterpart to Roman Law, is currently in effect in France in an amended form.

The Napoleonic Code is a revised version of the Roman law or Civil Law, which predominated in Europe, with numerous French modifications, some of which were based on the Germanic law that had been in effect in northern France. The code draws upon the Institutes of the Roman Corpus Juris Civilis for its categories of the civil law: property rights, such as licenses; the acquisition of property, such as trusts; and personal status, such as legitimacy of birth.

Napoléon applied the code to the territories he governed—namely, some of the German states, the low countries, and northern Italy. It was extremely influential in Spain and, eventually, in Latin America as well as in all other European nations except England, where the Common Law prevailed. It was the harbinger, in France and abroad, of codifications of other areas of law, such as Criminal Law, Civil Procedure, and Commercial Law. The Napoleonic Code served as the prototype for subsequent codes during the nineteenth century in twenty-four countries; the province of Québec and the state of Louisiana have derived a substantial portion of their laws from it. Napoléon also promulgated four other codes: the Code of Civil Procedure (1807), the Commercial Code (1808), the Code of Criminal Procedure (1811), and the Penal Code (1811).

Napoleonic Code

the name given to the French Civil Code. It brought together existing rules and implemented many of the new ideas of revolution. The provisions are brief and require judicial interpretation according to its spirit. Its structure is based on its civilian heritage and very broadly follows Justinian's Institutes (see CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS). The influence of the Code came from its implementation across Napoleon's sphere of influence including parts of Italy and Germany. The Code was a successful export, especially to the Americas. Its influence was weakened only when the German Civil Code (BGB) began to be copied by newer systems.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nous proposons donc, dans cet article, d'observer les premieres manifestations de cette institution en droit romain et dans l'ancien droit francais, pour ensuite retracer les origines--historiques et conceptuelles-du droit quebecois de l'absence, et de detailler son evolution, du Code civil du Bas-Canada jusqu'au Code civil du Quebec.
SINDE MONTEIRO (ed.), Um Codigo Civil para a Europa/A Civil Code for Europe/Un Code Civil pour l'Europe, Coimbra, 2002, 79-80.
V CODIFICATION IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM: THE FRENCH CODE CIVIL OF 1804
2421 del Code Civil frances permite la constitucion del derecho real de hipoteca como garantia real, incluso, respecto de creditos futuros, siempre que se precise su monto, acreedor y deudor.
Dans le cas oo ces mesures font partie d'un traitement, elles doivent imperativement etre soumises aux regles du Code civil du Quebec sur le consentement aux soins (Journal des debats, 19 fev.
Autour de l'enfant; du droit canonique et romain medieval au code civil de 1804.
Parmi elles, notons le Code civil du Quebec (45), la Loi sur les services de sante et les services sociaux (46), la Loi sur leslaboratoires medicaux (47) et la Loi sur la protection du consommateur (48).
Il retrace la vie de Flora Tristan, nee a Paris en 1803 d'une union non reconnue legalement entre une petite bourgeoise parisienne exilee en Espagne et un aristocrate hispano-peruvien ; a la mort du pere, en 1807, femme et enfants perdent toute ressource et vivent dans la pauvrete ; en 1821, Flora epouse civilement Andre Chazal, mari violent qu'elle fuit des 1825, errant avec ses enfants et se mettant dans une situation illegale selon le Code civil de 1804.
The French Code civil continues to provide thatathe supplier of a defective product is to be liable in all cases and on the same basis as the producer where the latter cannot be identified, though the has informed the injured person of the name of his own supplier.
Trois annees apres l'introduction du Code civil de 1804, l'affaire Dauga (une belle-mere tue son gendre afin d'heriter de sa dot et d'assurer la transmission integrale du patrimoine a sa fille) revele le conflit montant entre la coutume et la norme juridique ainsi que l'importance de la terre dans l'organisation sociale du monde villageois.
A French version of this study will appear in LE CODE CIVIL, 1804-2004, ENTRE IUS COMMUNE ET DROIT PRIVE EUROPEEN (A.A.