collective action

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Each perspective corruption as a principal-agent problem, corruption as a collective action problem, and corruption as problem-solving adds to understanding of the challenges that anti-corruption efforts face.
If so, the collective action problem can create a situation in which organizational difficulties can prevent the collection of money to pay the creator of the nuisance, thereby scuttling the elimination of the nuisance despite the desire to eliminate it.
In the third stage, we focused on the impact of collective action problems that the entrepreneurs were confronted with in their political activities.
However, the difficulty of the latter task by no means implies its impossibility--instead, it points to the crucial link between incentives and preferences, and to the crucial fact that successfully modifying the latter can substantially alleviate the collective action problem (Hummel, 2001; Stringham and Hummel, 2010).
The second-order collective action problem is only intractable if we assume that people are purely self-interested, or that they don't get intrinsic rewards from sharing information about other people's social behaviour.
On their view, it therefore seems, the existence of interstate spillovers does not simply create a collective action problem between states that suffices to warrant federal intervention, such spillovers render a nationalist legislative nudge necessary because no voluntaristic solution will suffice and no other nonvoluntary solution is at hand.
Moreover, federal regulation may have long been absent for reasons having little to do with the existence or scope of a collective action problem.
30) When it comes to collective action problem, the mere fact of having equal chance to influence each other is not enough.
If Congress has no reasonable basis to believe it is helping to solve a significant collective action problem involving multiple states, then Congress may not invoke its commerce power.
In small group situations however, the collective action problem may be more easily overcome.
Under the restrictions imposed by these limits, Congress may not use its commerce power: (1) to regulate noneconomic subject matter; (2) to impose a regulation that violates constitutional rights, including the right to bodily integrity; (3) to regulate at all, including by imposing a mandate, unless it reasonably believes that the regulation will ameliorate a significant collective action problem involving multiple states; or (4) to impose an economic mandate unless it reasonably believes that other regulatory means would be less effective or more coercive.
The hardest yet also the most essential task for any leader is solving the collective action problem among them.

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