Commodity Credit Corporation


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Commodity Credit Corporation

The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a federal agency that was established to stabilize and protect farm income and prices; to assist in the maintenance of balanced and sufficient supplies of useful or serviceable agricultural goods, especially articles of merchandise movable in trade; and to promote the orderly distribution of such products. It was organized on October 17, 1933, pursuant to an Executive Order, as an agency of the United States.

From October 17, 1933, to July 1, 1939, the CCC was managed and operated in close affiliation with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. On July 1, 1939, it was transferred to the Agriculture Department under a presidential Reorganization Plan. Adoption by Congress of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act on June 29, 1948, established the CCC as an agency and instrumentality of the United States under a permanent federal charter.

The CCC is managed by a board of directors and is subject to the general supervision and direction of the secretary of agriculture, who is an ex officio director and chairperson of the board. The board consists of seven members (in addition to the secretary of agriculture) who are appointed by the president of the United States by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

In carrying out its principal operations the CCC utilizes the personnel and facilities of the Farm Service Agency (FSA) and, in certain foreign trade operations, the Foreign Agricultural Service. A commodity office in Kansas City, Missouri, has specific responsibilities concerned with the disposal (through donation, sale, or transfer) of designated commodities and products held by the Commodity Credit Corporation.

Commodity Stabilization

The CCC administers commodity loan programs, which are part of the "price support" system that has dominated U.S. agriculture since the 1930s. Farmers who agree to limit their production of specially designated crops can sell them to the CCC or borrow money at support prices. In 2003, the CCC managed loan programs for wheat, corn, rice, grain sorghum, barley, oats, oilseeds, tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and sugar.

Commodities acquired under the stabilization program are disposed of through domestic and export sales, transfers to other government agencies, and donations for domestic and foreign welfare use. The CCC is also authorized to exchange surplus agricultural commodities acquired by the CCC for strategic and other materials and services produced abroad.

Support Programs

Under Public Law 480, the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (7 U.S.C.A. 1691 et seq.), the CCC carries out other assigned activities. Along with providing domestic assistance to schools, hospitals, and nonprofit organizations, major emphasis is also directed toward meeting the needs of developing nations. Under the Food for Peace Act of 1966, which further amends the Agricultural Trade Act of 1954, agricultural commodities are procured and exported to combat hunger and malnutrition and to encourage economic improvement in developing countries.

The CCC is also involved in environmental issues. In 2000, the Agriculture Department implemented a two-year, $300 million incentive program designed to encourage increased production of biofuels (environmentally-friendly fuels) such as ethanol and soy-based biodiesel. As a result, the Commodity Credit Corporation provided cash incentives to bioenergy producers who increase their purchase of eligible agricultural commodities to expand production of ethanol, biodiesel, and other biofuels. Eligible commodities include barley, corn, grain sorghum, oats, rice, wheat, soybeans, and many seed crops.

Further readings

Commodity Credit Corporation. Available online at <www.fsa.usda.gov/ccc/default.htm> (accessed May 29, 2003).

United States Department of Agriculture. Available online at <www.usda.gov> (accessed May 29, 2003).

Cross-references

Agricultural Law; Agriculture Subsidies.

References in periodicals archive ?
480 in FY1999, the final total includes approximately $700 million of food aid programming for Russia, which was carried out through a transfer of funds from the Commodity Credit Corporation. The FY2000 program level for P.L.
Excluding changes in the inventories owned or financed by the Commodity Credit Corporation, which tend to be very volatile, federal purchases of goods and services increased 4.4 percent, on net, over the year; nondefense purchases were up 3.6 percent and defense purchases, which had registered moderate declines in each of the three previous years, increased 4.7 percent in 1990.
The MFP is established under the statutory authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation CCC Charter Act and is under the administration of USDAs FSA.
The proposal would give USDA's Commodity Credit Corporation the authority to pay all claims for mandatory disaster assistance, and extends mandatory disaster assistance through Aug.
Veneman said that $70 million will be transferred from the USDA Commodity Credit Corporation to fund the enhanced program, which is expected to be ready to be implemented at the beginning of June this year.
The new cooperative will also assume payment of the $i00 million inventory debt to the Commodity Credit Corporation.
Inventories held by the Commodity Credit Corporation edged down further in the first quarter, but the rate of decline has been slowing (on a seasonally adjusted basis) since the middle of last year as the effects of last summer's drought have dissipated.
The Senate legislation also would provide substantial increases to international food aid and farm support programs financed through the Commodity Credit Corporation, which would receive $13.9 billion, up 25 percent from last year.
A large chunk of the $11 billion increase in requested funding would go to Commodity Credit Corporation outlays, which would get $5 billion more than the president's request in FY 2002, rising from $13.1 billion to $18.9 billion.
Roughly half of the decline reflected a drought-induced reduction in the farm inventories owned or financed by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), a reduction that is counted as a negative federal purchase.
In return for enrolling land in CRP, USDA, through FSA on behalf of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), provides participants that remove sensitive lands from production and plant certain grasses, shrubs and trees that improve water quality, prevent soil erosion and increase wildlife habitat with annual rental payments and cost-share assistance.

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