Moreover, if the soldiers themselves are to cultivate that common land
which is appropriated for their support, there will be no distinction between the soldier and the husbandman, which the legislator intended there should be; and if there should be any others who are to cultivate the private property of the husbandman and the common lands
of the military, there will be a fourth order in the state which will have no share in it, and always entertain hostile sentiments towards it.
They must lead somewhere --to something else than common land
, more palmy than the palms.
Government data shows that common lands are declining at a rate of about two percent a year.
The second involves using forest laws to expropriate common lands. The third mechanism is misuse of revenue laws under which state governments have general power to control classification of land that permits them t to get around provisions either through loopholes or by ignoring them.
"Brazen takeovers of community-owned lands have become a burning issue in large parts of India," said Shankar Gopalakrishnan of the Campaign for Survival and Dignity, one of the researchers presenting at the Conference on Forests and Common Lands
: Rights, Conflicts, Forest Rights Act (FRA) and Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA).
America's ancient continuum of forest and community can be divided into five distinct categories: common lands
, public lands, town forests, watershed plantations, and forest parks; lands owned by local conservation commissions, which gained popularity after 1960, are a sixth category.
The enclosure of common lands
at the start of Britain's Industrial Revolution was a disaster for those without property and power.
Scott describes several examples of this process; one is the enclosure of common lands
. Most "common" lands were, in fact, extremely complex property arrangements, in which different families' use rights were based on a multitude of local factors.
The disentailment of private, church and common lands
, which began in the 1790s and continued sporadically (sometimes convulsively) for nearly a century, merely consolidated the existing patterns of land ownership or domination, rather than creating a new and innovative bourgeois agriculture.